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Table 2 Summary risk estimates of the association between vitamin D and risk of CVD

From: The association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

  Nb Number of cases Risk estimate (95% CI) Heterogeneity test
REM I2 (%) P Pa
Vitamin D 25 10,099 1.44 (1.24–1.69) 84.7 0.00  
 Outcome       0.11
 Incidence [32, 41, 42, 44, 47, 60] 6 3338 1.18 (1–1.39) 57.7 0.03  
 Mortality [18, 19, 21, 39, 40, 43, 45, 46, 49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59] 19 6761 1.54 (1.29–1.84) 81.4 0.00  
Location where the study was conducted
 American [21, 44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52, 56, 59, 60] 13 6402 1.31 (1.12–1.54) 73.8 0.00 1
 Europe [19, 39,40,41,42,43, 53,54,55, 57, 58] 11 3634 1.67 (1.27–2.19) 85.6 0.00 0.09
 Others [18] 1 63 0.90 (0.50–1.61)
Sex       0.80
 Male [39, 44, 47, 52, 54] 5 1258 1 (0.84–1.20) 0.00 0.54  
 Female [18, 50] 2 142 1.12 (0.78–1.59) 0.00 0.35  
Quality       0.26
 High [18, 21, 39, 41,42,43, 46,47,48,49,50, 52,53,54,55,56,57, 60] 18 5343 1.30 (1.16–1.46) 38.8 0.04  
 Moderate [19, 40, 44, 45, 51, 58, 59] 7 4756 1.58 (1.15–2.15) 92.7 0.00  
Measurement of vitamin D       
 Radioimmunoassay [18, 19, 39, 40, 45, 50, 56, 58,59,60] 10 3924 1.61 (1.23–2.11) 82.3 0.00 1
 Mass spectrometry [44, 46, 47, 49, 52, 54] 7 2100 1.08 (0.96–1.21) 8.3 0.36 0.03
 Others [21, 41,42,43, 51, 53, 55, 57] 8 6024 1.45 (1.21–1.74) 72.1 0.00 0.39
Duration of follow up       0.98
  < 5 years [39, 40, 47, 51] 4 1430 1.69 (1.46–1.96) 0.00 0.39  
  > 5 years [18, 19, 21, 41,42,43,44,45,46, 48,49,50, 52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60] 21 8669 1.45 (1.22–1.73) 86.7 0.00  
  1. REM random effect model
  2. a Pvalue for metaregression, and location where the study was conducted (American as the reference) and Measurement of vitamin D (Radioimmunoassay as the reference)
  3. b N: number of results