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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included on dairy foods and CVD

From: The association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

Author Study, continent Age
(years)
Subjects Sex Quality Follow-up (years) Outcome (cases)
CVD
Method of measurement (vitamin D)
Lee, 2014 [39] European Male Ageing Study (EMAS), Europe 60 2452 Male High 4.3 72 Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
Formiga, 2014 [40] The Octabaix Study, Europe 85 312 Both Moderate 2.8 25 Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
Perna, 2013 [41] ESTHER Study, Europe 50–74 7709 Both High 6.5 1011 DiaSorin-Liason (Diasorin, Inc) and the IDS-iSYS (Immunodiagnostic Systems GmbH) immunoassayes
Kühn, 2013 [42] The European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), Europe 50.6 2132 Both High 7.7 1030 MassChrom reagent kit
Scho¨ttker, 2013 [43] ESTHER study, Europe 50–74 9578 Both High 9.5 350 Diasorin-Liaison analyzer
Bajaj, 2013 [44] Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS),
American
>  65 2990 Male Moderate 5.9 740 Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Liu, 2012 [45] Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANESIII),
American
≥ 35 13,134 Both Moderate 8 1451 Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
Kritchevsky, 2012 [46] the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study (Health ABC) study,
American
74.7 2638 Both High 8.5 228 Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
Messenger, 2012 [47] Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study,
American
76.4 813 Male High 4.4 140 Mass spectrometry (MS)
Welsh, 2012 [48] The MIDSPAN Family Study,
American
30–59 1522 Both High 14.4 297 Mass spectrometry (MS)
Kestenbaum, 2011 [49] The CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study),
American
≥ 65 2312 Both High 14 389 Mass spectrometry (MS)
Eaton, 2011 [50] Women’s Health Initiative (WHI),
American
50–79 2429 Female High 10 79 Radioimmunoassay
Anderson, 2010 [51] Intermountain Heart Collaborative (IHC),
American
55 27,686 Both Moderate 1.3 1193 Chemiluminescent immunoassay
Bolland, 2010 [18] Healthy postmenopausal women,
Others
74 1471 Female High 5 63 Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
Cawthon, 2010 [52] Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study,
American
≥ 65 1594 Male High 7.3 110 Mass spectrometry (MS)
Virtanen, 2010 [53] The KIHD study,
Europe
53–73 1136 Both High 9.1 35 An HPLC using diode array detector
Michae¨lsson, 2010 [54] The Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM),
Europe
71 1194 Male High 12.7 196 Mass spectrometry (MS)
Jassal, 2010 [21] The Rancho Bernardo Study,
American
76 1073 Both High 6.8 111 Competitive binding protein recognition and chemiluminescence detection
Hutchinson, 2010 [55] the fourth Tromsø study, Europe 58.9 7161 Both High 11.7 325 Immunometry (ECLIA) using an automated
clinical chemistry analyzer
Ginde, 2009 [56] National Center for Health Statistics conducted the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III),
American
≥ 65 3408 Both High 7.3 767 Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
Pilz, 2009 [57] The Hoorn Study Europe 50–75 614 Both High 6.2 20 Means of a competitive binding protein assay
Semba, 2009 [58] Invecchiare in Chianti, “Aging in the Chianti Area” (InCHIANTI) study, Europe ≥ 65 1006 Both Moderate 6.5 107 Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
Dobnig, 2008 [19] The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study, Europe 62 737 Both Moderate 7.7 463 Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
Melamed, 2008 [59] Third NationalHealth and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANESIII),
American
≥ 20 1331 Both Moderate 8.7 777 Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
Wang, 2008 [60] The Framingham Offspring cohort, American 59 1739 Both High 5.4 120 Radioimmunoassay (RIA)