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Table 1 Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics

From: Predictors of one-year outcomes in chronic heart failure: the portrait of a middle income country

VariableTotal (n = 695)
Age (years)55.4 + 12.2
Gender (Male) n(%)470 (67.6)
Race n(%)
 Asian7 (1.0)
 Black107 (15.4)
 Mixed345 (49.6)
 White236 (34.0)
Hypertension n(%)448 (64.5)
Diabetes n(%)205 (29.5)
Dyslipidemias n(%)462 (66.5)
Smoking n(%)64 (9.2)
Chronic Renal Failure n(%)187 (26.9)
COPD n(%)49 (0.07)
CABG n(%)34 (0.04)
PCI n(%)50 (0.07)
HIV n(%)2 (0.003)
Heart Failure Class n(%)
 NYHA I130 (18.7)
 NYHA II433 (62.3)
 NYHA III127 (18.3)
 NYHA IV5 (0.7)
Ejection Fraction (%)32.0 + 8.6
LVDD n(%)64.1 + 8.3
Heart failure etiology n(%)
 hypertensive181 (26.0)
 ischemic152 (21.9)
 chagasic118 (17.0)
 idiopathic108 (19.6)
  other136 (8.6)
 Weight (Kg)75.8 + 19.1
 Body mass index (kg/m2)27.9 + 6.0
 Heart rate (bpm)71.2 + 14.3
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)123.5 + 23.8
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)76.2 + 14.6
 Dyspnea n(%)599 (86.2)
 Orthopnea n(%)263 (37.8)
 Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea n(%)150 (21,6)
 Jugular venous distension n(%)250 (36.0)
 Pulmonary rales n(%)52 (7.5)
 Peripheral edema n(%)127 (18.3)
 Third heart sound n(%)50 (7.2)
 Hepatojugular reflux n(%)71 (10.2)
 Capillary filling time (3–5 s) n(%)19 (2.7)
 Ascitis n(%)18 (2.6)
 Hepatomegaly n(%)79 (11.4)
 Creatinine (mg/dL)1.27 + 0.77
 Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL)49.3 + 23.7
 CKD-EPI (μmol/L)68.2 + 22.7
 Sodium (mg/dL)139.3 + 2.72
 Potassium (mg/dL)4.8 + 0.6
 Hemoglobin (mg/dL)13.9 + 1.7
 Hematocrit (%)43.0 + 5.2
 Blood glucose fasting (mg/dL)113.6 + 51.2
 Glycated hemoglobin (%)6.3 + 0.7
 High sensitive troponin (ng/dL)0.040 + 0.062
 BNP (pg/mL)149 (54–355)
Medication in use n (%)
 Beta blocker673 (96.8)
 ACE inhibitor427 (61.4)
 ARB207 (30.0)
 Nitrate98 (14.1)
 Hydralazine116 (16.7)
 Diuretic631 (90.8)
 Digital165 (23.7)
 Lipid lowering332 (47.8)
  1. Continuous variables are expressed as mean ± SD
  2. Categorical variables are presented as absolute number and percentage [n (%)]
  3. BNP was expressed as median (interquartile range) due to non-normality
  4. COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, CABG Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, PCI Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus, NYHA New York Heart Association, LVDD left ventricular end diastolic dimension, CKD-EPI Chronic Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, BNP brain natriuretic peptide, ACEi angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker
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