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Table 1 Characteristics of enrolled patients, and association with adherence assessed by the Morisky Medication Adherence Scalea [Total N 112]

From: Patient, clinician and logistic barriers to blood pressure control among adult hypertensives in rural district hospitals in Rwanda: a cross-sectional study

Socio-Demographic characteristics N (%) Adherence p-value
High Low-Mod
Gender
 Female 90 (80.4) 68 (75.6) 22 (24.4) 0.53
 Male 22 (19.6) 18 (81.8) 4 (18.2)
Age
 Age 22-59 48 (44.9) 36 (75) 12 (25) 0.88
 Age 60-90 59 (55.1) 45 (76.3) 14 (23.7)
Marital status
 Married 50 (44.6) 38 (76) 12 (24) 0.63
 Widow/er 54 (48.2) 41 (75.9) 13 (24.1)
 Separated 5 (4.4) 5 (100) 0 (0.0)
 Single 3 (2.6) 2 (66.7) 1 (33.3)
Alcohol Use
 Yes 13 (11.7) 10 (76.9) 3 (23.1) 0.98
 No 98 (88.3) 75 (76.5) 23 (23.5)
Tobacco Use
 Yes 6 (5.4) 5 (83.3) 1 (16.7) 0.69
 No 105 (94.6) 80 (76.2) 25 (23.8)
Education
 None 46 (41.4) 41 (89.1) 5 (10.9) 0.01
  < Primary 19 (17.1) 11 (57.9) 8 (42.1)
 Primary 40 (36) 29 (72.5) 11 (27.5)
  ≥ Secondary 6 (5.5) 4 (66.7) 2 (33.3)
Literacy
 Yes 64 (57.7) 44 (68.8) 20 (31.2) 0.01
 No 47 (42.3) 42 (89.4) 5 (10.6)
Health Insurance
 No 4 (3.6) 3 (75) 1 (25) 1
 Community 108 (96.4) 83 (76.9) 25 (23.1)
Occupation
 Farmer 102 (91.1) 78 (76.5) 24 (23.5) 1
 Private Sector 10 (8.9) 8 (80.0) 2 (20)
Clinical environment, clinical history, and clinical encounter N (%) High Low-Mod p-value
Hospital
 A 11 (9.8) 7 (63.6) 4 (36.4) 0.001
 B 31 (27.7) 18 (58.1) 13 (41.9)
 C 29 (25.9) 21 (72.4) 8 (27.6)
 D 41 (36.6) 40 (97.6) 1 (2.4)
Known Diagnosis of Hypertension
 Today 2 (1.8) 2 (100) 0 (0.0) 0.15
  < 1 Month 1 (0.9) 1 (100) 0 (0.0)
 1 Month to < 1 Year 43 (38.0) 37 (86.0) 6 (14.0)
 1 to 5 Years 32 (28.7) 25 (78.1) 7 (21.9)
 5 to 10 Years 18 (16.2) 11 (64.7) 6 (35.3)
  > 10 Years 16 (14.4) 9 (56.2) 7 (43.8)
BMI
  < 25 61 (66.3) 49 (80.3) 12 (19.7) 0.1
  ≥ 25 31 (33.7) 20 (64.5) 11 (35.5)
Target BP Achieved
 Yes 26 (29.2) 19 (73.1) 7 (26.9) 0.52
 No 63 (70.8) 50 (79.4) 13 (20.6)
Patient Received BP Feedback
 Yes 37 (33) 25 (67.6) 12 (32.4) 0.11
 No 75 (67) 61 (81.3) 14 (18.7)
Patient received Last Medication
 Yes 103 (94.5) 82 (79.6) 21 (20.4) 0.009
 No 6 (5.5) 2 (33.3) 4 (66.7)
Last Pharmacy Location
 N/A 5 (4.5) 3 (60) 2 (40) 0.004
 Hospital 102 (92.8) 81 (79.4) 21 (20.6)
 Private 3 (2.7) 0 (0.0) 3 (100)
Used Hospital Pharmacy Today
 Yes 102 (92.7) 82 (78.8) 22 (21.2) 0.06
 No 8 (7.3) 4 (50) 4 (50)
History of Anti-Hypertensive Medication Side Effects
 Yes 7 (6.6) 3 (42.9) 4 (57.1) 0.03
 No 103 (93.6) 81 (78.6) 22 (21.4)
  1. BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, Mod moderate. All p-values calculated by chi squared test or by Fishers exact test for low expected cell frequencies, with significance as p < 0.05
  2. aThe MMAS (8-item) content, name, and trademarks are protected by US copyright and trademark laws. Permission for use of the scale and its coding is required. A license agreement is available from Donald E. Morisky, ScD, ScM, MSPH, 14725 NE 20th St Bellevue, WA 98007, USA; dmorisky@gmail.com. A score of 0 on the MMAS reflects high adherence