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Table 5 Prevalence and factors associated with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) according to the modified NCEP-ATP III criteria, using logistic regression, among adult outpatients (N = 325) at St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

From: Disease burden and associated risk factors for metabolic syndrome among adults in Ethiopia

Variables   MetS n(%) Crude OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p-value
Sex Male 28 (18.1) 1.00 1.00
Women 38 (22.4) 1.31 (0.76,2.25) 0.34 1.88 (0.93,3.80) 0.08
Age, years < 30 9 (8.3) 1.00 1.00
30–50 29 (21.2) 1.10 (0.64,1.89) 0.74 1.88 (0.72,4.87) 0.19
≥51 28 (35.0) 2.93 (1.65,5.21) 0.0002 4.15 (1.43,12.04) 0.01
Ethnicity Oromo 21 (14.8) 1.00 1.00
Amhara 30 (29.1) 2.12 (1.22,3.70) 0.01 2.36 (1.14,4.88) 0.02
Others 14 (19.2) 0.91 (0.47,1.76) 0.79 1.84 (0.78,4.37) 0.17
Marital status Single 7 (9.1) 1.00 1.00
Married 44 (21.6) 1.24 (0.70,2.19) 0.46 1.37 (0.49,3.82) 0.55
Divorced/ widowed 15 (34.1) 2.33 (1.17, 4.67) 0.02 1.95 (0.65,6.85) 0.29
Income, birr <  2000 11 (25.0) 1.00 1.00
2000–4000 11 (25.0) 1.37 (0.65,2.88) 0.41 2.37 (0.93,6.05) 0.07
≥4000 9 (28.1) 1.62 (0.71,3.69) 0.25 3.31 (1.11,9.84) 0.03
Education Primary school or less 30 (16.9) 1.00 1.00
Secondary school or more 31 (25.8) 1.72 (0.98,3.03) 0.06 2.19 (1.05,4.59) 0.04
Occupation Other employees/ students 26 (16.7) 1.00 1.00
Government employees 10 (20.0) 0.98 (0.46,2.08) 0.95 0.46 (0.16,1.31) 0.14
Unemployed 30 (25.2) 1.59 (0.92,2.75) 0.09 1.18 (0.58,2.40) 0.64
Weight, BMI in kg/m2 Normal (18.5–24.9) 33 (15.9) 1.00 1.00
Underweight(< 18.5) 4 (12.5) 0.53 (0.18,1.57) 0.25 0.82 (0.23,2.86) 0.75
Overweight (25.0–29.9) 21 (36.2) 2.80 (1.50,5.23) 0.001 2.21 (1.03,4.71) 0.04
Obese (≥30.0) 4 (40.0) 2.72 (0.75,9.94) 0.13 1.65 (0.35,7.90) 0.53
Adding salt before or during eating No 27 (28.7) 1.00 1.00
Yes 38 (16.5) 0.49 (0.28,0.87) 0.01 0.59 (0.31,1.13) 0.11
Doing exercise Yes 1 (6.3) 1.00 1.00
No 64 (20.9) 0.20 (0.03,1.94) 0.19 0.18 (0.01,3.95) 0.28
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, moderate or vigorous leisure/ recreational activities/ exercise; adding salt always, often or sometimes vs rarely or never
  2. Boldface are variables with p value less than 0.05