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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of HF Population Stratified by LVEF

From: Clinical characteristics and prognosis of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction: insights from a multi-centre registry study in China

Characteristic HFrEF (n = 211) HFmrEF (n = 201) HFpEF (n = 343) p value
Demographics, n (%)
 Female 67 (31.8%)# 68 (33.8%)# 179 (52.2%)* < 0.001
 Age (y) 62 (50–70)# 66 (58–75)* 71 (61–77)* < 0.001
 BMI (kg/m2) 23.14 (20.96–25.95) 24.43 (21.75–26.65) 24.03 (21.30–26.72) 0.109
 Married 192 (91.0%)# 178 (88.6%)# 268 (78.1%)* < 0.001
 Non-solitary 196 (92.9%) 188 (93.5%) 312 (91.0%) 0.505
 Medication insurance 183 (86.7%) 168 (83.6%) 295 (86.0%) 0.63
 Educated 144 (68.2%)# 125 (62.2%) 198 (57.7%)* 0.046
 MoCA 22.81 (19–28) 22.24 (18–27) 21.48 (17–27) 0.058
Clinical findings, n (%)
 Pulse (bpm) 80 (68–90)# 74 (64–83.5)* 75 (68–84)* 0.004
 SBP (mmHg) 115 (105–130)# 130 (110–140)* 130 (118–140)* < 0.001
 NYHA (III-IV) 158 (74.9%)# 121 (60.2%)* 176 (51.3%)* < 0.001
 JVP (>6cmH2O) 91 (43.1%a# 73 (36.3%)# 86 (25.1%)* < 0.001
Medical history, n (%)
 Hypertension 90 (42.7%)# 123 (61.2%)* 207 (60.3%)* < 0.001
 Diabetes Mellitus 43 (20.4%) 44 (21.9%) 70 (20.4%) 0.905
 Hyperlipidemia 57 (27.0%) 58 (28.9%) 124 (36.2%) 0.049
 COPD 11 (5.2%) 18 (9.0%) 37 (10.8%) 0.078
 CKD 17 (8.1%) 12 (6.0%) 21 (6.1%) 0.613
 Stroke 27 (12.8%) 32 (15.9%) 55 (16.0%) 0.545
 Prior MI 35 (16.6%) 55 (27.4%)*# 53 (15.5%) 0.002
 Tobacco use 92 (43.6%)# 93 (46.3%)# 99 (28.9%)* < 0.001
 Family history of HF 12 (5.7%) 7 (3.5%) 10 (2.9%) 0.245
 Family history of CAD 14 (6.6%) 19 (9.5%) 27 (7.9%) 0.571
 Cardiac Surgery 10 (4.7%) 15 (7.5%) 25 (7.3%) 0.431
 Devices 20 (9.5%)# 8 (4.0%) 14 (4.1%)* 0.014
 Angioplasty or stent implantation 23 (10.9%) 45 (22.4%)*# 48 (14.0%) 0.003
 Cardiac hospitalization 128 (60.7%)# 109 (54.2%)# 126 (36.7%)* < 0.001
Etiology,n (%)
 Ischemic heart disease 90 (42.7%) 119 (59.2%)* 174 (50.7%) 0.004
 Hypertensive heart disease 10 (4.7%)# 25 (12.4%)*# 76 (22.2%)* < 0.001
 Dilated cardiomyopathy 79 (37.4%)# 25 (12.4%)*# 16 (4.7%)* < 0.001
 Congenital heart disease 3 (1.4%) 1 (0.5%) 6 (1.7%) 0.514
 Others 29 (13.7%) 31 (15.4%) 71 (20.7%) 0.077
Medication status, n (%)
 Beta- blockers 133 (63.0%) 140 (69.7%) 205 (59.8%) 0.069
 On target dose of beta blockers 10 (4.7%) 6 (3.0%) 11 (3.2%) 0.558
 On target heart rate 54 (25.6%) 63 (31.3%) 105 (30.6%) 0.353
 On target dose or target heart rate 60 (28.4%) 68 (33.8%) 111 (32.4%) 0.465
 ACEIs/ARBs 152 (72.0%) 154 (76.6%)# 216 (63.0%) 0.002
 On target dose of ACEIs/ARBs 31 (14.7%)# 35 (17.4%)* 30 (8.7%)* 0.008
 MRAs 160 (75.8%)# 128 (63.7%)*# 159 (46.4%)* < 0.001
 Diuretics 165 (78.2%)# 143 (71.1%)# 179 (52.2%)* < 0.001
 Nitrate 67 (31.8%) 76 (37.8%) 114 (33.2%) 0.394
 Antiplatelet drugs 129 (61.1%) 150 (74.6%)*# 220 (64.1%) 0.009
 Anticoagulants 19 (9.0%) 25 (12.4%) 43 (12.5%) 0.402
 Digoxin 98 (46.4%)# 62 (30.8%)*# 49 (14.3%)* < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: HFrEF heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, HFmrEF heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction, HFpEF heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, BMI body mass index, NYHA New York Heart Function Assessment, MoCA Montreal cognitive assessment, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, JVP jugular venous pressure, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CKD chronic kidney disease, MI myocardial infarction, HF heart failure, CAD chronic coronary artery disease, ACEIs angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ARBs angiotensin receptor blockers, MRAs mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists
  2. *p < 0.025 versus HFrEF
  3. #p < 0.025 versus HFpEF