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Table 2 Characteristics of 101 reviewed cases of swallow syncope

From: Swallow syncope: a case report and review of literature

  Frequency (n=) Percentage (%)
Age Group (n = 101)
 Childhood/Adolescent [0–19 years] 6 5.9
 Younger adults [20–59 years] 37 36.6
 Older adults [60 years and above] 56 55.4
 Not stated 2 2.0
Gender (n = 101)
 Male 60 59.4
 Female 40 39.6
 Not Stated 1 1.0
Clinical Presentation (n = 101)
 Syncope 100 99.0
 Dysphagia 12 11.9
 Asymptomatic (incidental diagnosis) 1 1.0
Underlying Diseases (n = 100)
 Gastrointestinal Diseases 34 33.7
 Hiatal Hernia 19 18.8
 Achalasia 3 3.0
 Esophageal stricture 3 3.0
 Cardiac Diseases 33 32.7
 Coronary artery diseases 14 13.9
 Atrial Fibrillation 5 5.0
 Sick Sinus Syndrome 3 3.0
 Comorbiditiesa 28 27.7
Trigger Factor (n = 101)
 Any (Solid and Liquid) 55 54.5
 Solid only 23 22.8
 Liquid only 23 22.8
Type of Arrhythmia (n = 101)
 Sinus Dysfunctionb 34 33.7
 Atrioventricular Dysfunctionc 35 34.7
 Combination Sinus and AV Dysfunction 16 15.8
 Not Stated 13 12.9
 Othersd 3 3.0
Management (n = 101)
 Pacemaker Implantation 56 55.5
 Pharmacotherapy 11 10.9
 Atropine 9 8.9
 Treatment of Underlying causative factor 16 15.8
 Surgical correction of hiatal hernia 4 4.0
 Dilation of achalasia 1 1.0
 Dilation of esophageal stricture 1 1.0
 Conservative Management 9 8.9
 Avoidance trigger/ diet modification 7 6.9
 Close observation/ refused treatment 2 2.0
 Not Stated 9 8.9
 Documented efficacy of resp. treatment Effective (n=) Efficacy rate (%)
 Pacemaker (n = 53) 52 98.1
 Atropine treatment (n = 8) 7 87.5
 Surgical correction of Hiatal hernia (n = 4) 4 100
 Dilation of Achalasia (n = 1) 1 100
 Dilation of esophageal stricture (n = 1) 1 100
 Avoidance trigger/ diet modification (n = 5) 5 100
  1. aComorbidities defined as hypertension or diabetes mellitus or dyslipidemia or obesity or chronic kidney disease
  2. b Sinus Bradycardia, Sinus Arrest, Asystole; c First, Second, Third degree Atrioventricular block; d Atrial Tachycardia, Atrial Fibrillation and others