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Table 1 Literature review of 101 cases of Swallow Syncope from 1949 to 2018

From: Swallow syncope: a case report and review of literature

Author/ Reference Age/ Gender Presenting Symptom Underlying Diseases Trigger Factor Type of arrhythmia Management Effectiveness
Padalia et al. 2018/ [6] 65/ F Presyncope, Dysphagia, Odynophagia/ Candida Esophagitis, Metabolic Diseases Solid and Liquid Sinus bradycardia, Sinus arrest Micafugin Yes
Sammy et al. 2018/ [7] 67/M Syncope End Stage Renal Failure Ascension of Hyoid bone irritate carotid sinus
Yamaguchi et al. 2018/ [8] 76/M Syncope No Solid and Liquid (Citrus based) Sinus arrest, AV block PPM Yes
Lipar et al. 2018/ [9] 49/F Syncope Post whiplash neck injury Solid and Liquid PPM Yes
Van Damme et al. 2017/ [10] 39/M Syncope No Solid and Liquid 3rd degree AV block PPM
Aydogdu et al. 2017/ [11] 51/F Presyncope, Syncope No Solid food AV block Rejected PPM
65/F Syncope Liquid (Carbonated) Sinus arrest, 3rd degree AV block PPM Yes
39/F Presyncope, Syncope No Solid food 3rd degree AV block PPM Yes
53/F Presyncope, Syncope No Solid food Asystole Diet modification
68/M Presyncope, Syncope Atrial Fibrillation Liquids Asystole PPM Yes
Patel et al. 2017/ [12] 48/M Syncope, Nausea, Tunnel vision Hiatus Hernia Solid and Liquid Sinus arrest Hiatus hernia repair surgery Yes
Zaid et al. 2017/ [13] 71/M Syncope Achalasia Solid food AV block
Bhogal et al. 2017/ [14] 68/F Presyncope Hiatus Hernia, Metabolic Diseases Solid food Sinus Bradycardia, 1st degree AV block Discontinuation of metoprolol + Proton Pump Inhibitor No
59/M Pre-syncope & Syncope No Liquid diet Premature atrial complexes & Asystole PPM Yes
Trinco et al. 2016/ [15] 83/ M Syncope Carotid endarterectomy, Metabolic diseases Solid and Liquid Sinus bradycardia, 3rd degree AV block PPM Yes
Islam et al. 2016/ [16] 60/ F Presyncope, Syncope No Solid food (Large chunk of bread) AV block Avoidance of trigger Yes
Chhetri et al. 2016/ [17] 71/M Syncope Fundoplication for GERD Solid and Liquid (Fizzy drink) Sinus arrest PPM NM
Tiffany et al. 2016/ [18] 80/F Syncope, palpation, facial flushing Metabolic diseases, Hypothyrodism Solid and Liquid Atrial Tachycardia Catheter ablation Yes
Manu et al. 2016/ [19] 13/F Syncope Superior sinus atrial septal defect Solid and Liquid 3rd degree AV block PPM Yes
Aaberg et al. 2015/ [20] 62/M Pre-syncope, Syncope No Solid and Liquid 2nd and 3rd degree AV block PPM Yes
Kahn et al. 2015/ [4] 89/M Syncope Transient Oesophageal dysmotility, Coronary artery diseases Solid and Liquid (Carbonated) 1st and 2nd degree AV block PPM Yes
Saitoh et al. 2015/ [21] 70/M Syncope No Solid food Asystole PPM Yes
Erdogan et al. 2015/ [22] 47/M Syncope Achalasia Solid and Liquid AV block, Asystole Pneumatic dilation Yes
Shashank et al. 2014/ [23] 31/F Presyncope & Syncope No Liquid (Carbonated) Sinus bradycardia, Asystole PPM Yes
78/ M Presyncope Sick sinus syndrome, Metabolic diseases Solid food PPM + Coffee before meals Yes
80/M Presyncope, Syncope Hiatus Hernia AF, various cardiac comorbid Solid food (Sticky food) Avoidance of trigger Yes
Shah et al. 2014/ [24] 57/M Presyncope, Syncope No Swallow +Cold drink Advanced heart block for 3–4 s PPM Yes
Witcik et al. 2014/ [25] 70/M Syncope, Weakness, Flushing Mild AV regurgitation Liquid (Carbonated) Atrial Fibrillation with ventricular pause PPM Yes
Arihide et al. 2014/ [26] 79/M Syncope Coronary artery disease, Metabolic diseases Solid and Liquid Sinus arrest PPM Yes
Moore et al. 2013/ [27] 65/F Presyncope, Syncope No Solid food AV block PPM Yes
Lambiris et al. 2013/ [28] 54/M Presyncope, Shortness of breath No Solid and Liquid 1st degree AV block PPM Yes
Rezvani et al. 2013/ [29] 51/F Syncope Post Laparoscopic gastrectomy Solid and Liquid AV block Atropine Yes
Kim eat al. 2012/ [30] 39/M Syncope, Chest tightness No Liquid (Cold) 3rd degree AV block Avoidance of trigger Yes
Knopke et al. 2012/ [31] 49/F Syncope, Dysphagia, Regurgitation Hiatus hernia, Diffuse oesophageal spasm Solid food 3rd degree AV block PPM Yes
Foreman et al. 2011/ [32] 52/F Presyncope, Chest pain No Solid food 2nd degree AV block PPM Yes
Vanerio et at. 2011/ [33] 84/F Syncope Hiatus Hernia Solid and Liquid (Carbonated) Nissen’s Fundoplication Yes
Mitra et al. 2011/ [34] 60/F Presyncope, Syncope Metabolic Diseases Solid food Sinus Bradycardia, 3rd degree AV block PPM Yes
Marina et al. 2010/ [35] 37/M Syncope Megaoesophagus, Extra Cardiac mass compressing left atrium Solid and Liquid Deflation of gastric band
GY Lee et al. 2010/ [36] 62/M Syncope, Dysphagia Atrial Fibrillation, Metabolic diseases Liquid Asystole PPM Yes
Endean et al. 2010/ [37] 61/ M Syncope, Chest pain, Vision lost Post Carotid entaterectomy Solid food Glycopyrrolate Yes
Casella et al. 2009/ [38] 66/ M Syncope Oesophageal dysmotility, Sick sinus syndrome Liquid only AV block PPM Yes
Karamitsos et al. 2009/ [39] 82/F Syncope Hiatus hernia Large meal NM
Favaretto et al. 2008/ [40] 63/M Syncope, Odynophagia Hiatus hernia Solid and Liquid Asystole PPM Yes
Bajwa et al. 2008/ [41] 51/M Presyncope, Syncope Metabolic diseases, Inflammatory bowel diseases Solid food Atrial & Ventricular atopic beat PPM Yes
Christopher et al. 2008/ [42] 25/F Syncope No Solid and Liquid 3rd degree AV block PPM Yes
Fahrner et al. 2008/ [43] 75/M Syncope No Solid and Liquid AV block
Patsilinakos et al. 2007/ [44] 86/F Syncope Oesophageal stenosis, Ascending aorta aneurysm, Hypothyroidism Solid and Liquid Sinus arrest Avoidance of trigger Yes
Tuzcu et al. 2007/ [45] 16/F Syncope, Visual disturbance No Solid food 3rd degree AV block, Asystole PPM Yes
Omni et al. 2006/ [2] 66/F Syncope Metabolic Diseases Liquid AV block PPM Yes
Gawrieh et al. 2005/ [46] 63/M Presyncope, Syncope, Dysphagia Hiatus Hernia Solid food AV block, Asystole PPM Yes
63/M Presyncope, Syncope Hiatus hernia, Coronary artery diseases, Metabolic diseases Solid and Liquid Refuse treatment
62/F Presyncope, Syncope, Dysphagia Nutcracker oesophagus, Coronary artery diseases Solid and Liquid Sinus bradycardia, Sinus arrest PPM Yes
Turan et al. 2005/ [47], Kang et al. 2005/ [48] 48/M Syncope, Dysphagia Achalasia Solid food Sinus bradycardia PPM Yes
59/ M Syncope Metabolic diseases Solid and Liquid Sinus bradycardia PPM
59/M Syncope, Dysphagia Compression fracture thoracic spine, Graves diseases Solid food Sinus bradycardia Diet habit modification
Sreekant et al. 2004/ [49] 85/M Syncope Coronary artery diseases, Peripheral vascular diseases Solid and liquid Asystole PPM Yes
61/ F Presyncope Metabolic diseases Liquid (Carbonated) Sinus Bradycardia
Yoshifumi et al. 2004/ [50] 76/F Syncope Hiatus hernia Solid food
Srivathsan et al. 2003/ [51] 26/M Presyncope No Solid food Systole PPM Yes
Mekawa et al. 2002/ [52] 76/ F Syncope Hiatus hernia Solid and liquid Hernia repair surgery Yes
Gordon et al. 2002/ [53] 26/F Syncope, Central chest discomfort Hiatus hernia Solid and liquid Paroxysmal Atrial fibrillation, Ventricle atopic beat Diet habit modification Yes
Takeshi et al. 2002 [54] 69/F Presyncope, Syncope Metabolic diseases Solid food Sinus arrest
Rasmi et al. 2001/ [55] 16/M Syncope No Liquid (Carbonated) Asystole PPM Yes
Haumer et al. 2000/ [56] 67/ M Syncope Coronary artery disease Liquid Sinus arrest Temporary Pacemaker Yes
Kakuchi et al. 2000/ [57] 21/M Syncope Vasovagal syncope Solid and liquid AV block PPM
Kazushi et al. 1999/ [58] 69/M Syncope, Facial flushing, Profuse diarrhoea Metabolic disease, Stroke Solid food Cessation of Enalapril Yes
Olshasky et al. 1999/ [59] 72/M Presyncope, Syncope Liquid (Cold carbonated) Sinus bradycardia PPM
Dante et al. 1997/ [60] 78/M Syncope Oesophageal carcinoma Solid food AV block, Asystole PPM Yes
Bellori et al. 1992/ [61] 69/M Syncope Liquid Sinus arrest
SY AO et al. 1991/ [5] 70/M Incidental Lung carcinoma Solid and Liquid High grade AV block Atropine before meal Yes
Shapira et al. 1991/ [62] 63/M Presyncope, Syncope Hiatus hernia, Coronary artery disease Solid and Liquid 2nd degree AV block PPM Yes
Kunimoto et al. 1990/ [63] 65/M Presyncope, Syncope No Liquid (Cold) 2nd degree AV block, Asystole PPM Yes
Elam et al. 1989/ [64] 44/M Syncope No Solid and Liquid 3rd degree AV block PPM Yes
Engelharbt et al. 1986/ [3] 5/F Syncope No Solid and Liquid/ Brush teeth 3rd degree AV block Close Observation Yes
Ausubel et al. 1987/ [65] 26/M Syncope Heart murmur Solid food Sinus bradycardia, AV block PPM Yes
Nakano et al. 1987/ [66] 67/M Syncope, Retrosternal discomfort Aneurysm descending thoracic aorta Solid and Liquid Sinus bradycardia, Sinus arrest Atropine before meal Yes
Nakagawa et al. 1987/ [67], Guberman et al.1986/ [68] 48/M Syncope No Solid and Liquid AV block Atropine
62/F Syncope No Oesophageal balloon inflation 2nd degree heart block Propanthelene bromide No
62/M Syncope Congestive heart failure Solid food 2nd degree heart block Discontinuation of digoxin Yes
Alan et al. 1986/ [69] 56/M Syncope Inferior myocardial infarction Liquid 1st degree heart block PPM Yes
Golf et al. 1986/ [70] 15/ F Syncope No Solid and Liquid SA node blockade with junctional escape rhythm
Armstrong et al. 1985/ [71] 53/F Syncope, Dyspnoea, Retrosternal discomfort Hiatus hernia Liquid Sinus bradycardia PPM Yes
58/F Syncope, Pulseless, Apnoea Myocardial infarction, Atrial Fibrillation, Stroke Solid and Liquid Sinus bradycardia and Asystole PPM No
58/F Presyncope No Solid and Liquid 3rd degree AV block and Asystole PPM Yes
81/F Syncope Hiatus hernia, Metabolic disease Liquid (Hot) Sinus bradycardia PPM Yes
53/M Syncope Myocardial infarction Liquid (Cold) 2nd degree AV block PPM Yes
Kunis et al. 1985/ [72] 60/M Presyncope, Syncope, Chest pain Metabolic diseases Solid food (Hot) 3rd degree AV block, Asystole PPM Yes
Drake et al. 1985/ [73] 76/F Syncope Myocardial infarction, Metabolic disease Sight of food 3rd degree AV block PPM Yes
Mauro et al. 1985/ [74] 65/ F Presyncope, syncope Myocardial ischemia Solid and Liquid 2nd degree AV block Atropine No
Golf et al. 1977 [75] −/ M Syncope, Convulsion No Solid and Liquid 2nd degree AV block PPM Yes
Weaddington et al. 1975/ [76] 71/M Syncope Hiatus hernia, Oesophagus carcinoma, Atrial Fibrillation Solid food Sinus bradycardia and Asystole Surgical removal of Oesophageal Carcinoma Yes
B Wik et al. 1975/ [77] 43/ M Syncope, Retrosternal chest pain Rheumatic heart diseases Liquid (Carbonated) AV block PPM
Poul et al. 1973/ [78] 64/ F Syncope Hiatus hernia, Abnormal oesophageal motility Solid and Liquid Sinus bradycardia, AV block Hernia Repair Yes
Edgar et al. 1972/ [79] 84/M Syncope Hiatus hernia, Metabolic diseases Solid and Liquid 2nd degree AV block Atropine Yes
Keith et al. 1971/ [80] 45/M Syncope, Dysphagia, Heart burn Hiatus hernia, Oesophageal stricture Solid and Liquid Sinus bradycardia Dilation of oesophageal stricture Yes
Rajendra et al. 1971/ [81] 29/ F Syncope No Solid and Liquid Asystole Surgical cauterization vagal nerve Yes
Edgardo et al. 1970/ [82] 73/M Syncope, Chest pain Myocardial infarction, Metabolic disease Solid and Liquid AV block, Asystole Atropine Yes
R P Sapru et al.1968/ [83] 29/F Presyncope No Solid and Liquid AV block, Asystole Atropine Yes
George et al. 1958/ [84] −/− Syncope No Liquid Discontinuation of digitalis Yes
Correll et al. 1949/ [85] 67/M Syncope, Chocking sensation Oesophageal diverticulum, Digitalis medication Solid and Liquid 3rd degree AV block Atropine Yes
  1. F Female, M Male, (−) Not Stated, AV Atrioventricular, PPM Permanent Pacemaker