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Table 4 Summary of selected outcomes by study design

From: The effect of mobile applications for improving adherence in cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Quasi-experimental studies
  Numbers of studies that assessed this Randomized controlled trial Controlled before-after study Uncontrolled before-after study
Outcome Outcome Study Effect Study Effect Study Effect
CR adherence 7 Rosario et al. 2018 [25] +++ Widmer et al. 2015 [28] Forman et al. 2014 [22]
Skobel et al. 2017 [26] + Harzand et al. 2018 [23]
Varnfield et al. 2014 [27] +++ Laustsen et al. 2018 [24]
Widmer et al. 2017 [29] ++
Exercise capacity 7 Rosario et al. 2018 [25] ^ Widmer et al. 2015 [28] +++ Harzand et al. 2018 [23] +++
Skobel et al. 2017 [26] +++ Laustsen et al. 2018 [24] +++
Varnfield et al. 2014 [27] +
Widmer et al. 2017 [29] ^
Mental health 5 Rosario et al. 2018 [25] Widmer et al. 2015 [28] +++
Skobel et al. 2017 [26]
Varnfield et al. 2014 [27] +++
Widmer et al. 2017 [29] ++
QoL 3 Skobel et al. 2017 [26] Widmer et al. 2015 [28] +++ Laustsen et al. 2018 [24] +++
Varnfield et al. 2014 [27] +++
Widmer et al. 2017 [29] +++
  1. Key: QoL: Quality of Life; CR: Cardiac Rehabilitation
  2. +++: statistically significant effect; ++: greater improvement in intervention group than control but between group difference not significant; +: significant improvement in both groups but between group difference not reported or not significant; −: no reported change between treatment groups; ^: within-group improvement not significant; ∫: adherence improvement data from participant survey