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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics, conventional two-dimensional echocardiographic parameters between T2DM patients and normal subjects (mean ± SD)

From: Peak systolic longitudinal rotation: a new tool for detecting left ventricular systolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography

Variable T2DM Normal P
Clinical Age (yrs) 55.57 ± 11.08 50.42 ± 13.88 0.207
Male 34(51) 27(52) 0.128
Height(cm) 166.08 ± 8.64 163.60 ± 8.15 0.137
Weight(kg) 66.08 ± 11.61 56.68 ± 8.57 < 0.001
BSA(m2) 1.71 ± 0.19 1.57 ± 0.14 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 22.67 ± 1.44 21.99 ± 1.18 0.010
Heart Rate(bpm) 76.39 ± 9.52 71.85 ± 11.49 0.031
SBP (mmHg) 127.55 ± 12.64 118.25 ± 10.36 < 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 78.10 ± 8.85 72.60 ± 7.54 0.001
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 13.41 ± 4.38 4.82 ± 0.64 < 0.001
Two-hour postprandial blood sugar(mmol/L) 15.13 ± 4.52 5.66 ± 0.73 < 0.001
HbA1c (%) 10.34 ± 2.25 4.98 ± 0.73 < 0.001
NYHA Class
I 51(51) 52(52)  
II 0(51) 0(52)  
III 0(51) 0(52)  
IV 0(51) 0(52)  
Medical treatment
Diet treatment 0(51)   
Oral drug 10(51)   
Insulin 26(51)   
Insulin+Oral drug 15(51)   
Echocardiography LA D(mm) 35.53 ± 3.88 34.65 ± 3.29 0.219
IVSD(mm) 9.39 ± 1.25 9.15 ± 0.98 0.283
LVPWD(mm) 9.06 ± 1.21 9.00 ± 1.08 0.795
LVDD(mm) 47.00 ± 3.64 46.94 ± 3.15 0.932
LVEDV(ml) 72.29 ± 14.78 79.02 ± 12.64 0.015
Indexed LVEDV (ml/m2) 42.72 ± 9.25 50.63 ± 8.68 < 0.001
LVESV(ml) 27.39 ± 5.99 28.29 ± 7.61 0.509
Indexed LVESV (ml/m2) 16.16 ± 3.58 18.08 ± 4.80 0.023
LVEF(%) 62.06 ± 4.75 64.53 ± 5.51 0.017
LV mass(g) 149.81 ± 34.70 145.92 ± 31.07 0.550
Indexed LV mass(g/m2) 88.49 ± 21.71 92.95 ± 18.42 0.263
E(m/s) 0.79 ± 0.14 0.83 ± 0.16 0.296
A(m/s) 0.69 ± 0.19 0.69 ± 0.18 0.958
E/A 1.23 ± 0.35 1.27 ± 0.38 0.590
e′(m/s) 0.09 ± 0.02 0.11 ± 0.02 0.001
a′ (m/s) 0.10 ± 0.02 0.08 ± 0.02 < 0.001
E/e′ 10.39 ± 2.50 8.13 ± 2.61 < 0.001
Speckle Tracking Echocardiography LS-endo −23.46 ± 2.42 −24.22 ± 2.99 0.160
LS-mid −20.29 ± 2.15 −20.92 ± 2.61 0.183
LS-epi −17.64 ± 1.94 −18.15 ± 2.35 0.237
LSr −1.06 ± 0.16 −1.12 ± 0.19 0.088
  1. BSA: Body surface area, BMI: Body mass index, SBP: systolic blood pressure, DBP: diastolic blood pressure, LAD: left atrial diameter, IVSD: interventricular septal thickness in end-diastolic period, LVPWD: left ventricular posterior wall thickness in end-diastolic period, LVDD: left ventricular diameter in end-diastolic period, LVEDV: left ventricular end-diastolic volume, LVESV: left ventricular end-systolic volume, LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction, E: peak velocity during early diastole of anterior mitral valve, A: peak velocity during late diastole of anterior mitral valve, e′: peak early diastolic annular velocities using TDI, a′: peak late diastolic annular velocities using TDI. LS-endo: longitudinal strain of LV endomyocardial. LS-mid: longitudinal strain of LV middle myocardial. LS-epi: longitudinal strain of LV epimyocardial. LSr: longitudinal strain rate of LV