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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: β-blockers and risk of all-cause mortality in patients with chronic heart failure and atrial fibrillation—a meta-analysis

Study Country Study Design Mean follow-up, years Sample (Women, %) Mean age, years LVEF,% End points Statistical Methods Mean baseline HR, b.p.m. Baseline BBs Reduction HR at follow-up, b.p.m. Follow-Up BBs
Fauchier 2009 [29] France Multicenter registry study 2.4 1269 (39%) 74 48 ± 17 all-cause mortality Logistic regression and Multivariate Cox regression NA NA NA NA
Abi et al. 2018 [28] (Gulf Survey) Qatar Multicenter registry study 1 334 (34%) 62 < 40 all-cause mortality and hospitalization for HF Multivariable logistic regression analyses 115 NA NA NA
Li 2015 [30] (Swedish Heart Failure Registry) Sweden Multicenter registry study 2.4 7392 (33.2%) 75.7 < 40 all-cause mortality Multivariate Cox regression NA NA NA NA
Nielsen 2016 [31] Demark Multicenter registry study 3.1 23,896 (42.8%) 78 NA all-cause mortality Multivariate Cox regression with propensity score matching and Inverse Probability– Weighted NA NA NA NA
Ozieranski 2017 [15] (ESC-HF Registry) Poland Registry study 1.1 797 (27.5%) 72 < 40 all-cause mortality and hospitalization for HF Cox regression NA NA NA NA
Yu 2017 [16] Korea Cohort study 4.5 1516 (50.6%) 69.2 NA all-cause mortality Multivariate Cox regression with propensity score matching NA NA NA NA
Cadrin- Tourigny 2016 [28] (AF-CHF) Canada post-hoc analysis of RCT 3.1 Cadrin- Tourigny 2016 (AF-CHF) 70 < 35 all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization for HF Multivariate Cox regression with propensity score matching 79 NA NA NA
Joglar 2001 [23] (US Carvedilol) U.S.A post-hoc analysis of RCT 0.5 136 (10%) 65 < 35 all-cause mortality log-rank test 87 6.25 mg of carvedilol twice daily −13 25 mg of carvedilol twice daily
Kao 2013 [24] (BEST) U.S.A post-hoc analysis of RCT 2 303 (9%) 65.6 < 35 all-cause mortality Cox regression 80 3 mg of bucindolol twice daily −6.9 50 mg of bucindolol twice daily
Mulder 2012 [26] (SENIORS) U.S.A post-hoc analysis of RCT 1.8 738 (35.5%) 77 < 35 all-cause mortality and hospitalization for HF Cox regression 84 1.25 mg of nebivolol daily −11 10 mg of nebivolol daily
Lechat 2001 [25] (CIBIS II) U.S.A post-hoc analysis of RCT 1.3 521 (82.9%) 62.5 < 35 all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization for HF Multivariate Cox regression 88 1.25 mg of bisoprolol daily −8.8 10 mg of bisoprolol daily
Van Veldhuisen 2006 [27] (MERIT-HF) U.S.A post-hoc analysis of RCT 1 556 (13%) 65.7 < 40 all-cause mortality and hospitalization for HF Multivariate Cox regression 84 12.5 mg of metoprolol CR/XL daily −14.8 154 mg metoprolol CR/XL daily