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Table 3 Longitudinal Data Analysis: Patient Report Outcomes Changes Over One year by Individual Characteristicsa

From: Association of sex, age and education level with patient reported outcomes in atrial fibrillation

  Symptoms (β, 95% CI) Anxiety (β, 95% CI) Depression (β, 95% CI) Function (β, 95% CI) AF-related QOL (β, 95% CI)
Age Group
  > 18 and < 60 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
> 60 and < 70
 Baseline −0.44 (− 0.78, − 0.12) − 3.13 (− 5.19, 1.06) −1.93 (− 4.08, − 0.86) −1.04 (− 2.98, 0.90) 1.38 (− 5.11, 7.88)
 6 month −0.73 (− 1.06, − 0.39) −2.75 (− 4.94, − 0.56) −3.12 (− 4.27, − 1.12) −1.82 (− 3.88, 0.24) 2.16 (− 4.72, 9.04)
 12 month −0.90 (− 1.24, − 0.56) −3.63 (− 5.82, − 1.44) − 2.93 (− 5.12, − 1.67) −1.92 (− 3.97, 0.14) 9.54 (2.57, 16.52)
> 70 and < 80
 Baseline −0.70 (− 1.01, − 0.38) − 4.07 (− 6.05, − 2.09) −2.74 (− 4.42, − 0.96) −2.16 (− 4.07, − 0.25) 1.10 (−5.32, 7.51)
 6 month −0.81 (− 1.14, − 0.49) −3.05 (− 5.14, − 0.96) −2.95 (− 4.82, − 1.09) − 3.22 (− 5.22, − 1.23) 5.95 (− 0.66, 12.55)
 12 month −0.87 (−1.19, − 0.54) −3.68 (− 5.77, − 1.59) − 2.74 (− 4.60, − 0.88) − 3.71 (− 5.70, − 1.72) 2.42 (− 4.24, 9.08)
> 80
 Baseline −0.80 (− 1.16, − 0.45) −5.06 (− 7.31, − 2.81) −3.79 (− 5.80, − 1.78) − 6.24 (− 8.36, − 4.12) 0.27 (− 6.72, 7.25)
 6 month −0.77 (− 1.13, − 0.40) −4.59 (− 7.02, − 2.17) − 2.67 (− 4.82, − 0.51) −7.32 (− 9.60, − 5.04) 2.40 (− 5.12, 9.92)
 12 month − 0.84 (− 1.21, − 0.48) −4.46 (− 6.80, − 2.12) − 2.94 (− 5.02, − 0.85) −7.65 (− 9.88, − 5.41) −1.23 (− 8.70, 6.25)
Female Sex
 Baseline 0.29 (0.13, 0.45) 2.08 (0.76, 3.40) 1.44 (0.25, 2.63) −2.23 (− 3.52, − 0.94) − 4.08 (− 8.06, − 0.10)
 6 Month 0.15 (− 0.07, 0.36) 2.28 (0.77, 3.80) 0.66 (−0.69, 2.01) −2.94 (− 4.39, − 1.48) 0.17 (− 4.30, 4.64)
 12 Month 0.10 (− 0.05, 0.26) 1.82 (0.32, 3.32) 1.23 (− 0.11, 2.57) − 3.18 (− 4.62, − 1.75) 0.29 (− 4.21, 4.80)
Education
  > than college Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
College
 Baseline 0.06 (−0.19, 0.32) 0.12 (− 1.48, 1.72) 0.26 (− 1.18, 1.70) − 1.66 (− 3.26, − 0.06) −0.66 (− 4.50, 3.18)
 6 month − 0.01 (− 0.28, 0.25) 1.10 (− 0.70, 2.90) 0.91 (− 0.69, 2.51) − 3.41 (− 5.16, − 1.66) 1.78 (− 3.79, 7.36)
 12 month − 0.09 (− 0.36, 0.18) 0.40 (− 1.44, 2.25) 0.64 (− 1.00, 2.28) − 3.28 (− 5.05, − 1.52) 1.66 (− 4.06, 7.37)
Some college
 Baseline 0.42 (0.17, 0.68) 1.86 (0.26, 3.45) 1.40 (−0.04, 2.84) − 2.04 (− 3.63, − 0.44) −4.41 (− 8.25, − 0.57)
 6 month 0.02 (− 0.25, 0.29) 2.71 (0.82, 4.61) 0.67 (− 1.01, 2.35) − 2.66 (− 4.45, − 0.88) −1.53 (− 7.19, 4.13)
 12 month −0.04 (− 0.31, 0.23) 2.13 (0.33, 3.94) 0.73 (− 0.88, 2.34) − 2.90 (− 4.63, − 1.16) −1.39 (− 7.05, 4.27)
High School or less
 Baseline 0.02 (− 0.26, 0.31) 0.86 (−1.00, 2.71) 1.08 (− 0.58, 2.74) − 2.86 (− 4.68, − 1.04) −3.93 (− 6.88, 1.81)
 6 month − 0.04 (− 0.35, 0.26) 1.30 (−0.91, 3.50) 0.35 (−1.61, 2.31) −3.38 (− 5.47, − 1.29) −0.87 (− 7.15, 5.41)
 12 month −0.13 (− 0.44, 0.18) 0.69 (−1.47, 2.85) 0.94 (− 0.98, 2.86) −3.63 (− 5.69, − 1.58) 1.33 (− 5.14, 7.81)
  1. aModel adjusted for the Charlson Comorbidity Index, body mass index, and rate and rhythm medication prescription
  2. Signficant results (p<0.05) are indicated by bold font