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Table 3 Co-variates associated with short-term and chronic high-impact groups in different regions

From: Regional variations in trajectories of long-term readmission rates among patients in England with heart failure

Short-term high-impact OR [95% CI] Chronic high-impact OR [95% CI]
London
 Stroke^ 4.39 [2.51–7.69] Chronic renal disease+ 11.82 [6.05–23.10]
 Anaemia^ 4.26 [2.56–7.10] Diabetes+ 8.76 [5.05–15.18]
 Chronic renal disease* 4.01 [2.23–7.24] Valvular heart disease+ 5.81 [3.39–9.97]
 Valvular heart disease* 3.06 [1.84–5.10] Stroke+ 5.64 [3.16–10.07]
 Chronic respiratory disease* 2.86 [1.75–4.66] Chronic respiratory disease+ 4.62 [2.64–8.08]
   Female sex* 2.89 [1.68–4.95]
   Anaemia* 2.75 [1.65–4.57]
East of England
 Anaemia* 8.33 [3.56–19.49]   
North-East
 Congenital heart disease* 3.74 [2.27–6.17] Hypertension+ 14.88 [8.00–27.66]
 Chronic renal disease+ 3.00 [2.64–3.42] Cardiac arrhythmia+ 6.17 [5.00–7.61]
 Dementia+ 2.86 [2.46–3.32] Mood disorder+ 5.81 [4.62–7.32]
 Cardiac arrhythmia+ 2.75 [2.41–3.13] Chronic respiratory disease+ 5.31 [4.18–6.75]
 Hypertension+ 2.59 [2.16–3.10] Chronic renal disease+ 4.90 [3.97–6.05]
 Mood disorder+ 2.51 [2.12–2.97] Anaemia+ 4.14 [3.39–5.05]
 Chronic respiratory disease+ 2.32 [2.03–2.64] Dementia+ 3.86 [2.97–5.00]
 Anaemia+ 2.23 [1.95–2.53] Pulmonary embolism^ 2.66 [1.86–3.82]
 Valvular heart disease+ 2.12 [1.84–2.44] Diabetes+ 2.44 [1.99–2.97]
 Stroke+ 1.65 [1.49–1.82] Stroke+ 2.29 [1.88–2.80]
 Atrial fibrillation* 1.35 [1.22–1.49] Atrial fibrillation+ 2.18 [1.75–2.72]
 Older age+ 0.74 [0.69–0.79] Marital problems* 2.18 [1.52–3.13]
 HF diagnosis as an inpatient^ 0.61 [0.51–0.72] Valvular heart disease^ 2.12 [1.73–2.59]
   Peripheral vascular disease* 1.82 [1.43–2.32]
   Ischaemic heart disease* 1.58 [1.28–1.95]
   Exercise recommendation by GP* 1.55 [1.25–1.93]
   History of flu vaccination+ 1.52 [1.25–1.86]
   Older age+ 0.41 [0.37–0.46]
North-West
 Hypertension+ 5.64 [3.42–9.30] Older age* 0.43 [0.31–0.59]
 Mood disorder+ 3.29 [2.32–4.66] Number of patients with increased out-of-hours GP visits (>90th percentile) ^ 0.34 [0.23–0.50]
 Dementia^ 3.13 [2.16–4.53] GP visit for renal function monitoring* 0.31 [0.19–0.51]
 Cardiac arrhythmia^ 2.83 [2.10–3.82] HF diagnosis as an inpatient+ 0.19 [0.13–0.28]
 Chronic renal disease^ 2.46 [1.82–3.32]   
 Anaemia^ 2.39 [1.77–3.22]   
 Chronic respiratory disease* 2.20 [1.63–2.97]   
 History of flu vaccination* 2.12 [1.54–2.92]   
 Older age* 0.48 [0.33–0.68]   
 HF diagnosis as an inpatient* 0.41 [0.27–0.61]   
South-Central
 Chronic respiratory disease^ 5.93 [3.63–9.68] Hypertension^ 0.31 [0.17–0.55]
 Valvular heart disease+ 5.75 [3.49–9.49] Chronic renal disease* 0.22 [0.14–0.37]
 Cardiac arrhythmia^ 4.62 [2.64–8.08] Older age* 0.23 [0.12–0.41]
 Older age^ 0.22 [0.13–0.39] Dementia* 0.19 [0.10–0.37]
   HF diagnosis as an inpatient+ 0.06 [0.03–0.11]
South-East
 Ischaemic heart disease+ 17.64 [4.76–65.37] Chronic renal disease* 4.35 [3.00–6.30]
 Chronic renal disease^ 8.76 [4.95–15.49] Anaemia+ 4.14 [2.89–5.93]
 Chronic respiratory disease^ 5.53 [3.06–9.97] Dementia^ 3.16 [2.05–4.85]
 Cardiac arrhythmia* 5.16 [3.00–8.85] Cardiac arrhythmia* 2.61 [1.80–3.78]
   Chronic respiratory disease+ 2.23 [1.55–3.19]
   GP visit for HF medication review* 0.38 [0.24–0.62]
   Older age* 0.37 [0.23–0.58]
West-Midlands
 Cardiac arrhythmia+ 5.47 [3.49–8.58] Chronic renal disease+ 9.97 [5.21–19.11]
 Hypertension* 4.06 [2.10–7.85] Cardiac arrhythmia* 5.70 [3.22–10.07]
 Chronic respiratory disease^ 3.32 [2.18–5.05] Stroke^ 5.16 [2.94–9.03]
 Female sex* 2.75 [1.73–4.35] Chronic respiratory disease^ 4.62 [2.61–8.17]
 Older age* 0.39 [0.25–0.63] Older age* 0.26 [0.15–0.47]
South-West
   History of flu vaccination* 9.03 [3.00–27.11]
   Chronic respiratory disease* 0.07 [0.02–0.25]
   Older age* 0.03 [0.01–0.11]
   HF diagnosis as an inpatient+ 0.01 [0.00–0.04]
  1. (* denotes P <  0.05, ^ denotes P <  0.01, + denotes P <  0.001). Age was grouped into categories for use in the model in the following brackets: 18–45, 45–54, 55–64, 65–74, 75–84, and 85 +)