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Table 1 Patient characteristics in general HF population and different regions. The co-morbidities and mortality of each region was compared with the general population

From: Regional variations in trajectories of long-term readmission rates among patients in England with heart failure

Patient characteristics N [%] or mean [SD] Overall population East of England London North-East North-West South-east South-west South-central West Midlands
Age (mean [SD]) 76.2 [14.3] 79.1 [11.9]^ 78.6 [11.5]^ 74.7 [15.0]** 75.9 [12.5] 79.8 [11.2]^ 78.6 [11.4]^ 79.6 [11.2]^ 76.3 [13.9]
Female sex 3520 [37.2] 404 [32.3]^ 317 [26.9]^ 484 [48.5]^ 530 [29.6]^ 395 [31.9]^ 386 [28.1]^ 380 [29.1]^ 624 [52.4]^
Myocardial infarction 1338 [14.1] 177 [14.2] 143 [12.1] 246 [24.7]^ 255 [14.2] 151 [12.2] 164 [11.9] 150 [11.5] 250 [21.2]^
Atrial fibrillation 3174 [33.5] 424 [33.9] 327 [27.8]^ 479 [48.2]^ 509 [28.4]^ 423 [34.2]^ 382 [27.8]^ 392 [29.9]^ 626 [53.1]^
Myocarditis/Cardiomyopathy 303 [3.2] 30 [2.4] 46 [3.9] 61 [6.1]^ 43 [2.4] 53 [4.3] 36 [2.6] 36 [2.7] 69 [5.8]^
Hypertension 4494 [47.4] 584 [46.7] 517 [44.0]* 742 [74.7]^ 790 [44.1]* 567 [45.7] 511 [37.2]^ 501 [38.3]^ 860 [73.0]^
Diabetes 1570 [16.6] 195 [23.6] 178 [15.1] 250 [25.1]^ 293 [16.3] 191 [15.4] 193 [14.0] 177 [13.5]* 274 [23.2]^
Valvular heart disease 1392 [14.7] 162 [12.9] 150 [12.7] 225 [22.6]^ 276 [15.4] 181 [14.6] 168 [12.2] 166 [12.7] 270 [22.9]^
Peripheral vascular disease 586 [6.2] 63 [5.0] 74 [6.3] 106 [10.6]^ 117 [6.5] 66 [5.3] 63 [4.6] 73 [5.6] 95 [8.0]*
Dementia 908 [9.8] 112 [8.9] 124 [10.5] 160 [16.1]^ 145 [8.1] 94 [7.6]* 96 [6.9] 126 [9.6] 185 [15.7]^
HF diagnosed as an inpatient 4795 [50.6] 548 [43.8]^ 430 [36.5]^ 743 [74.6]^ 658 [36.8]^ 493 [39.8]^ 504 [36.6]^ 532 [40.7]^ 887 [74.6]^
Overall 5-year mortality 3741 [39.5] 402 [32.2]^ 360 [30.6]^ 485 [48.6]^ 565 [31.5]^ 400 [32.3]^ 421 [30.6]^ 454 [34.7]^ 646 [54.3]^
  1. * denotes P value < 0.05, ** denotes P value < 0.01 and ^ denotes P value < 0.001