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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of PDD patients

From: A risk score for predicting atrial fibrillation in individuals with preclinical diastolic dysfunction: a retrospective study in a single large urban center in the United States

   AF – free (N = 9136) Incident AF (N = 455) P-value
Age (years), mean ± SD 66 ± 12 66 ± 12 70 ± 11 <  0.001
Male, n (%) 3935 (41.0) 3714 (40.7) 221 (48.6) 0.001
Mortality, n (%) 996 (10.4) 893 (9.8) 103 (22.6) <  0.001
Race/Ethnicity, n (%)     <  0.001
 White 1278 (13.3) 1176 (12.9) 102 (22.4)  
 Black 3393 (35.4) 3232 (35.4) 161 (35.4)  
 Hispanics 3384 (34.2) 3146 (34.4) 138 (30.3)  
 Others 1636 (17.1) 1582 (17.3) 54 (11.9)  
SES, mean ± SD −3.15 ± 2.8 −3.15 2.8 −3.01 ± 2.9 0.468
BMI (kg/m2), median (IQR) 28.3 (24.7–32.6) 28.3 (24.7–32.5) 28.3 (24.3–32.6) 0.856*
Comorbidities, n (%)
 HTN 7277 (75.9) 6895 (75.5) 382 (84.0) <  0.001
 MI 822 (8.6) 774 (8.5) 48 (10.6) 0.122
 PAD 1250 (13.0) 1147 (12.6) 103 (22.6) <  0.001
 Stroke 1833 (19.6) 1770 (19.4) 113 (24.8) <  0.001
 DM 3416 (35.6) 3222 (35.3) 306 (42.6) 0.001
 COPD 2519 (26.3) 2385 (26.1) 134 (29.4) 0.114
 CKD 1798 (18.8) 1686 (18.5) 112 (24.6) 0.001
 Malignancy 1428 (14.9) 1341 (14.7) 87 (19.1) <  0.001
 Obesity 3077 (38.7) 2933 (38.7) 144 (38.7) 1.000
Medications, n (%)
 ACEI/ARB 2324 (24.2) 2203 (24.1) 121 (26.6) 0.228
 Beta-Blocker 1796 (18.7) 1699 (18.6) 97 (21.3) 0.146
 Calcium Channel Blocker 1922 (20.0) 1828 (20.0) 94 (20.7) 0.735
 Diuretics 2098 (21.9) 2001 (21.9) 97 (21.3) 0.769
Lifestyle risk factors, n (%)
 Alcohol use disorder 485 (5.1) 467 (5.1) 18 (4.0) 0.272
 Active smoking 2267 (23.6) 2165 (23.7) 102 (22.4) 0.531
  1. SES socioeconomic score, BMI body mass index, IQR interquartile range, HTN hypertension, MI myocardial infarction, PAD peripheral artery disease, DM diabetes mellitus, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CKD chronic kidney disease, ACEI/ARB angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker
  2. * Medians are reported and compared using Kruskal-Wallis test