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Table 4 Univariate analysis of potential risk factors for operative mortality

From: Metabolic syndrome increases operative mortality in patients with impaired left ventricular systolic function who undergo coronary artery bypass grafting: a retrospective observational study

Risk factors Odds ratio 95% CI P value
Female gender 1.71 0.21–13.70 0.616
Age>70 5.11 1.73–15.11 0.003
Expected operative risk (by EuroSCORE II) (%) 1.19 1.09–1.30 <0.0001
Metabolic syndrome 3.58 1.10–11.69 0.034
Obesity (BMI>25 kg/m2) 2.17 0.71–6.60 0.174
Hypertension 1.15 0.39–3.38 0.797
Diabetes mellitus 2.49 0.86–7.22 0.092
HDL cholesterol (<1.04 mmol/L in men and<1.29 mmol/L in women) 5.45 1.77–16.78 0.03
Triglycerides ≥1.69 mmol/L 1.14 0.40–3.28 0.808
Fasting glycemia ≥6.1 mmol/L 4.33 1.32–14.14 0.015
Previous percutaneous coronary intervention 1.83 0.48–7.04 0.377
Smoking 2.16 0.66–7.05 0.202
NYHA heart failure class (III/IV) 6.00 1.83–19.68 0.003
Peripheral vascular disease 2.88 0.73–11.41 0.133
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 2.43 0.27–22.25 0.432
History of stroke 5.42 1.48–19.83 0.011
Renal dysfunction (creatinine>150 μmol/L) 7.59 1.98–29.18 0.003
Left main stenosis ≥50% 2.19 0.75–6.35 0.15
3-vessel disease (≥75% stenosis) 1.71 0.52–5.58 0.377
LV ejection fraction (%) 0.94 0.87–1.02 0.166
LV diastolic dimension (mm) 1.01 0.94–1.09 0.804
Pulmonary hypertension 2.78 0.96–8.07 0.06
Mitral valve surgery 2.88 0.73–11.41 0.133
Urgent/emergency surgery 43.25 7.45–251.23 <0.0001
On-pump bypass surgery 4.33 1.46–12.85 0.008
IMA used as grafts 0.7 0.18–2.64 0.597
Mitral valve insufficiency 1.52 0.52–4.44 0.447
No. of distal anastomosis 1.17 0.66–2.08 0.59
  1. (95% CI = 95% confidence interval, BMI = body mass index, EuroSCORE = European system for cardiac operatic risk evaluation, HDL = high-density lipoprotein, LV = left ventricular, IMA = internal mammary artery)
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