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Table 1 Comparison of characteristics based on the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome

From: Metabolic syndrome increases operative mortality in patients with impaired left ventricular systolic function who undergo coronary artery bypass grafting: a retrospective observational study

  Metabolic Syndrome
Variables All Patients (n = 190) Absent (n = 103) Present (n = 87) P value
Age, yrs 62.7 ± 9.2 62.6 ± 9.8 62.7 ± 8.4 0.964
Female gender 20 (10.5%) 7 (6.8%) 13 (14.9%) 0.068
BMI,kg/m2 24.9 ± 4.2 23.0 ± 3.2 27.1 ± 4.1 P<0.0001
Expected operative risk (by EuroSCORE II) (%) 3.5 ± 6.7 3.2 ± 6.9 4.0 ± 6.9 0.399
NYHA heart failure class (III/IV), n(%) 66 (34.7%) 27 (26.2%) 39 (44.8%) 0.007
Risk factors and concomitant diseases
 Smoking
  Never 81 (42.6%) 43 (41.7%) 38 (43.7%) 0.789
  Former 35 (18.4%) 19 (18.4%) 16 (18.4%) 0.992
  Current 74 (38.9%) 41 (38.9%) 33 (37.9%) 0.792
 Obesity (BMI>25 kg/m2) 18 (9.5%) 4 (3.9%) 14 (16.1%) 0.004
 Hypertension 108 (56.8%) 36 (35.0%) 72 (82.8%) P<0.0001
 Diabetes mellitus 63 (33.2%) 19 (18.4%) 44 (50.6%) P<0.0001
 Lipid profile
  HDL cholesterol, mmol/L 1.05 ± 0.69 1.14 ± 0.9 0.94 ± 0.24 0.038
  LDL cholesterol, mmol/L 2.97 ± 1.16 2.68 ± 1.06 3.30 ± 1.20 P<0.001
  Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.6 ± 0.9 1.27 ± 0.43 2.0 ± 1.15 P<0.0001
 Fasting glycaemia, mmol/L 6.5 ± 2.8 5.6 ± 1.9 7.6 ± 3.2 P<0.0001
 CK-MB, μg/L 21.3 ± 33.9 18.6 ± 15.9 24.5 ± 47.1 0.231
 Hyperuricemia 50 (26.3%) 22 (21.4%) 28 (32.2%) 0.091
 COPD 6 (3.2%) 2 (1.9%) 4 (4.6%) 0.297
 Peripheral vascular disease 17 (8.9%) 6 (5.8%) 11 (12.6%) 0.101
 History of stroke 15 (7.9%) 6 (5.8%) 9 (10.3%) 0.250
 Renal dysfunction (creatinine>150 μmol/L) 12 (6.3%) 4 (3.9%) 8 (9.2%) 0.134
 Used of mechanical ventilation 11 (5.8%) 5 (4.9%) 6 (6.9%) 0.548
 Details of coronary artery disease
  Left main stenosis ≥50% 57 (30%) 31 (30.1%) 26 (29.9%) 0.975
  2-vessel disease(≥75% stenosis) 54 (28.4%) 26 (25.2%) 28 (32.2%) 0.291
  3-vessel disease(≥75% stenosis) 119 (62.6%) 63 (61.2%) 56 (64.4%) 0.649
 Recent myocardial infarction (<30 days) 69 (36.3%) 38 (36.9%) 31 (35.6%) 0.857
 Atrial fibrillation 10 (5.3%) 7(6.8%) 3 (3.4%) 0.303
 Previous PCI 24 (12.6%) 17 (16.5%) 7 (8.0%) 0.080
Echocardiographic findings
 LV ejection fraction (%) 39.8 ± 6.4 39.3 ± 6.3 40.4 ± 6.6 0.237
 LV diastolic dimension (mm) 56.8 ± 6.9 56.5 ± 7.4 57.1 ± 6.2 0.505
 Pulmonary hypertension 59 (31.1%) 35 (34.0%) 24 (27.6%) 0.343
 Mitral valve insufficiency 96 (50.5%) 52 (50.5%) 44 (50.6%) 0.990
 Left ventricular aneurysm 31 (16.3%) 20 (19.4%) 11 (12.6%) 0.208
Operative data
 Urgent/emergency surgery 7 (3.7%) 3 (2.9%) 4 (4.6%) 0.705
 On-pump bypass surgery 54 (28.4%) 31 (30.1%) 23 (26.4%) 0.577
 IMA used as grafts 161 (84.7%) 85 (82.5%) 76 (87.4%) 0.356
 Saphenous vein used as grafts 180 (94.7%) 96 (93.2%) 84 (96.6%) 0.303
 Aneurysmectomy 10 (5.3%) 8 (7.9%) 2 (2.3%) 0.183
 Mitral valve surgery 17 (8.9%) 10 (9.7%) 7 (8.0%) 0.689
 No. of distal anastomosis 2.6 ± 0.9 2.5 ± 0.93 2.75 ± 0.89 0.059
  1. Mean ± SD for continuous variables are shown
  2. (BMI = body mass index, NYHA = New York Heart Association, EuroSCORE = European system for cardiac operatic risk evaluation, COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention, HDL = high-density lipoprotein, LDL = low-density lipoprotein, CK-MB = creatine kinase-myocardial band, LV = left ventricular, IMA = internal mammary artery, SD = standard deviation)
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