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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies. (placed in the section of “result”, the first paragraph of “Characteristics of included studies”)

From: Trimethylamine-N-oxide has prognostic value in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis and dose-response analysis

StudyCountryAge
(mean ± SD)
Gender
(% male)
Follow up
(years)
Popula-
tion
Samp-
le size
TMAOa
(μmol/L)
TMAO typeFast-
ing
Quantification of TMAOCollection timeHR
(95% CI)
OutcomesModel charac-
ter
Adjust-
ed
NOS
Selecti-
on
Compar-abilityOutco-meTotal
stars
Tang WH 2013 [5]USA63 ± 11643Chronic CHD40073.7
(2.4–6.2)
plasma+LC/MS/MSTime of cardiac catheterize-
tion
1.30 (1.20–1.4, P < 0.001)MACEPer SD+b*******7
Lever M
2014 D [6]
New Zealand74 ± 6.7734.8ACS747.5
(4.4–12.1)
plasmaHPLC-MS/MSFourth-month post-discharge outpatient clinic visit2.0 (1.1–3.6)All cardiovascul-
ar events
Tertile******6
Lever M
2014 UD [6]
New Zealand68 ± 6.3735.0ACS3814.8
(3.0–9.1)
plasma2.7 (1.6–4.8)DeathTertile*******7
Senthong V 2016 [7]USA63 ± 11715Chronic CHD22353.8
(2.5–6.5)
plasma+LC/MS/MSTime of cardiac catheterize-
tion, immediately prior to heparin injection and catheterizetion procedure
1.71 (1.11–2.61, P < 0.0138)All-cause mortalityQuartile+c********8
Suzuki T 2017 [8]UK67 ± 3.3702ACS10793.7
(4.6–6.4)
plasmaLC-ToF-MRMDays 1, 3 and 5 after admission1.40 (1.26–1.55, P < 0.0005)Death/MIPer SD*********9
CC
Li XS
2017 [9]
USA62.4±
13.9
57.57ACS5304.28
(2.55–7.91)
plasmaLC/MS/MSOn presentation
to the emergency room (baseline) and 4, 8 and 16 h later
1.81 (1.04–3.15,
P < 0.05)
All-cause mortalityQuartile+d********8
SC
Li XS
2017 [9]
Swiss Confede-ration63.9±
12.4
77.81ACS16832.87
(1.94–4.85)
plasmaAverage time from the onset of chest pain to blood draw was 4.0 h1.57
(1.03–2.41, P < 0.05)
MACEQuartile+e*******7
Xu K-Z
2018 [10]
China67.4±
12.8
44in-
hospital
ACS2005.9 ± 1.9plasmaHPLC-MS/MSAt hospital admission or the next morning in fasting stateOR: 6.01 (2.03–17.73, P < 0.05)MACEQuartile+e********8
Matsuzawa Y 2019 [11]Japan63.0±
2.5
88.05.4ACS1125.63 (3.20–10.38)plasmaLC-MSAt hospital admission before primary percutaneous coronary intervention1.72 (0.63–4.92, P = 0.29)cardiovascul-
ar events
Above vs. below+f********8
  1. ACS acute coronary syndrome, CHD coronary heart diseases, CC Cleveland acute coronary syndrome cohort, CI confidence interval, D patients with diabetes, F female, HR hazard ratio, HPLC-MS/MS high performance liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry, LC-MS liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, LC/MS/MS stable isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography with on line electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, LC-ToF-MRM stable-isotope dilution-hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring, M male, MACE major adverse cardiovascular event, MImyocardial infarction, NOS the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, P P-value, SC Swiss ACS cohort, SD standard deviation, TMAO trimethylamine-N-oxide, UD patients without diabetes, UK United Kingdom, USA United States of America
  2. aConcentration of TMAO are presented as median (interquartile range) or mean ± standard deviation
  3. bAdjusted for age, sex, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, high-density lipoprotein, cholesterol level, and status with respect to diabetes mellitus, and other baseline covariates
  4. cAdjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, LDL, HDL, and smoking status, high sensitivity C reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, B-type natriuretic peptide, myeloperoxidase, number of diseased vessels, and medications
  5. dAdjusted for age, gender, HDL, LDL, smoking, presence or absence of a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, revascularization or coronary artery disease, C-reactive protein level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, initial troponin T level and diagnosis of either acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI or unstable angina
  6. eAdjusted for age, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac troponin I, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and diabetes mellitus
  7. fAdjusted for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking habits, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, hemoglobin A1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, B-type natriuretic peptide, C-reactive protein, anterior myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, and medications on discharge