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Table 2 Factors associated with hypertension

From: The prevalence, awareness, management and control of hypertension in men and women in Benin, West Africa: the TAHES study

FactorsUnivariable analysisMultivariable analysis
Model 1aModel 2bModel 3c
OR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)p
Age (y)1.04 (1.03–1.04)<0.00011.04 (1.03–1.05)<0.00011.04 (1.03–1.05)<0.00011.04 (1.03–1.05)<0.0001
Sex
 MalesRef. 1 Ref. 1 Ref. 1 Ref. 1 
 Females1.00 (0.82–1.23)0.95581.07 (0.83–1.38)0.59770.94 (0.72–1.22)0.63051.01 (0.77–1.33)0.9460
Education
 NoneRef. 1 Ref. 1 Ref. 1 Ref. 1 
 Primary0.59 (0.46–0.76)<0.00010.95 (0.71–1.27)0.72030.92 (0.68–1.24)0.57620.89 (0.66–1.22)0.4908
 Higher0.72 (0.52–1)0.05410.70 (0.93–2.28)0.10240.81 (0.83–2.12)0.23450.80 (0.86–2.19)0.1896
Occupation
 Employee/government employeeRef. 1 Ref. 1 Ref. 1 Ref. 1 
 Craftsman/storekeeper1.38 (0.90–2.12)0.13561.37(0.80–2.34)0.24781.29 (0.75–2.24)0.35641.27 (0.23-3.12)0.3987
 Farmer/breeder/fisherman2.2 (1.38–3.49)0.00081.44 (0.80–2.59)0.22161.56 (0.85–2.84)0.15011.49(0.81–2.72)0.1971
 Homemade/retired2.84 (1.42–5.66)0.00302.31 (1.02–5.22)0.04512.79 (1.19–6.53)0.01732.81 (1.19–6.67)0.0190
 Jobless5.00 (2.78–8.99)<0.00011.52 (0.72–3.20)0.27361.73 (0.81–3.70)0.15781.61 (0.75–3.46)0.2222
Religion
 ChristiansRef. 1 Ref. 1 Ref. 1 
 Animists1.97 (1.58–2.46)<0.00011.43 (1.12–1.82)0.00421.57 (1.22–2.02)0.00051.52 (1.17–2.62)0.0048
 Other1.22 (0.78–1.89)0.38151.06 (0.67–1.69)0.80211.12 (0.68–1.77)0.69341.16 (0.58–1.89)0.7834
Marital status
 SingleRef. 1 Ref. 1 
 Married/in couple1 (0.73–1.38)0.96210.89 (0.63–1.26)0.5102 
 Widowed/divorced/separated2.84 (1.92–4.21)< 0.00011.10 (0.69–1.77)0.6800
Average household income/month
 LowRef. 1 
 Middle0.97 (0.81–1.21)0.8896 
 High0.78 (0.27–2.20)0.6368
Depression
 NoRef. 1  
 Yes1.1 (0.79–1.53)0.5790
Anxiety
 NoRef. 1 Ref. 1 
 Yes1.21 (0.91–1.59)0.18950.97 (0.71–1.33)0.8536 
Body mass index (kg/m2)1.02 (1.00–1.03)0.00021.02 (1.01–1.04)0.00011.05 (1.02–1.07)0.00011.04 (1.01–1.07)0.001
 18.5–25Ref. 1  Ref. 1 Ref. 1 
 < 18.51.48 (1.08–2.03)0.01411.05 (0.73–1.51)0.79401 (0.7–1.46)0.9598
 25–301.92 (1.50–2.46)<0.00012.12 (1.60–2.79)<0.00012.10 (1.59–2.18)<0.0001
> 302.78 (1.97–3.92)<0.00013.57 (2.43–5.25)<0.00013.32 (2.25–4.89)<0.0001
Tobacco Use (smoked/chewed)
 NoRef. 1  Ref. 1  
 Yes (past/current)1.54 (1.10–2.17)0.01190.84 (0.57–1.26)0.4021
Diabetes
 NoRef. 1  
 Yes1.09 (0.62–1.93)0.7533
Physical activity
 ≥ 150 min/weekRef. 1  Ref. 1 Ref. 1 
 < 150 min/week1.37 (1.11–1.67)0.00271.17 (0.93–1.48)0.17551.18 (0.93–1.49)0.1725
Fruits and vegetables
 ≥ 5/dayRef. 1  
 < 5/day1.03 (0.74–1.45)0.8363
Alcohol consumption
 AbstainersRef. 1  Ref. 1 
 Light0.77 (0.60–0.98)0.03130.75 (0.57–0.99)0.0500
 Moderate to heavy1.19 (0.94–1.53)0.14871.11 (0.82–1.50)0.5162
Salt consumption
 RarelyRef. 1     Ref. 1 
 Often and very often1.23 (1–1.50)0.0512    1.11 (0.89–1.41)0.3801
  1. aModel 1: adjusted for demographic and socio-economic factors
  2. bModel 2: adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and cardiovascular risk factors
  3. cModel 3: adjusted for demographic, socio-economic, cardiovascular risk factors and nutritional factors