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Table 1 Clinical variables of the 105 hypertensive patients with or without arterial stiffness

From: Serum levels of sclerostin as a potential biomarker in central arterial stiffness among hypertensive patients

Characteristic All participants
(n = 105)
Low AS group
(n = 69)
High AS group
(n = 36)
p value
Age (years) 64.51 ± 10.21 61.96 ± 10.01 69.42 ± 8.80 <  0.001*
Height (cm) 160.92 ± 8.47 161.55 ± 8.45 159.72 ± 8.50 0.296
Body weight (kg) 69.12 ± 12.31 68.71 ± 13.38 69.91 ± 10.10 0.639
Body mass index (kg/m2) 26.60 ± 3.61 26.16 ± 3.61 27.43 ± 3.50 0.088
cfPWV (m/s) 9.33 ± 2.76 7.78 ± 1.43 12.29 ± 2.23 <  0.001*
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 134.52 ± 17.85 131.41 ± 14.94 140.50 ± 21.39 0.013*
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 73.72 ± 9.95 73.23 ± 9.96 74.67 ± 10.01 0.486
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 174.51 ± 38.22 176.94 ± 36.85 169.86 ± 40.84 0.370
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 121.00 (93.50–172.00) 121.00 (94.00–174.00) 128.00 (89.50–173.50) 0.718
HDL-C (mg/dL) 45.62 ± 13.37 46.72 ± 13.86 43.50 ± 12.28 0.243
LDL-C (mg/dL) 103.25 ± 28.92 103.96 ± 26.20 101.89 ± 33.89 0.730
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 114.00 (98.50–157.00) 116.00 (98.50–158.00) 115.00 (97.75–153.75) 0.893
Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL) 16.91 ± 5.26 16.20 ± 4.74 18.28 ± 5.97 0.054
Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.10 ± 0.33 1.06 ± 0.28 1.19 ± 0.41 0.042*
eGFR (mL/min) 69.34 ± 20.51 72.86 ± 19.07 62.60 ± 21.72 0.014*
Total calcium (mg/dL) 9.17 ± 0.37 9.19 ± 0.37 9.14 ± 0.36 0.512
Phosphorus (mg/dL) 3.52 ± 0.51 3.56 ± 0.52 3.43 ± 0.49 0.219
iPTH (pg/mL) 50.81 ± 27.71 45.12 ± 22.04 61.72 ± 33.94 0.003*
Sclerostin (pmol/L) 69.34 ± 20.51 52.58 ± 21.66 74.77 ± 31.02 <  0.001*
Dickkopf-1 (pmol/L) 14.00 (6.06–28.82) 14.61 (5.94–30.23) 13.52 (6.02–25.51) 0.845
Female, n (%) 36 (34.3) 25 (36.2) 11 (30.6) 0.561
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 46 (43.8) 25 (36.2) 21 (58.3) 0.030*
ACE inhibitor, n (%) 33 (31.4) 22 (31.9) 11 (30.6) 0.889
Angiotensin receptor blocker, n (%) 60 (57.1) 39 (56.5) 21 (58.3) 0.859
β-blocker, n (%) 62 (59.0) 37 (53.6) 25 (69.4) 0.118
Calcium channel blocker, n (%) 49 (46.7) 29 (42.0) 20 (55.6) 0.187
Statin, n (%) 64 (61.0) 46 (66.7) 18 (50.0) 0.097
Fibrate, n (%) 17 (16.2) 8 (11.6) 9 (25.0) 0.077
  1. Values for continuous variables are shown as mean ± standard deviation after analysis by Student’s t-test; variables not normally distributed are shown as median and interquartile range after analysis by the Mann-Whitney U test; values are presented as number (%) and analysis after analysis by the chi-square test
  2. AS arterial stiffness, cfPWV carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, iPTH intact parathyroid hormone, ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme
  3. Patients with cfPWV values > 10 m/s were assigned to the high AS group, whereas those with values ≤10 m/s constituted the low AS group
  4. *Values of p <  0.05 were considered statistically significant