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Table 5 Changing of patient’s characteristics: comparison of biochemical values before and after dietary intervention

From: Dietary intervention with a specific micronutrient combination for the treatment of patients with cardiac arrhythmias: the impact on insulin resistance and left ventricular function

  Verum (n = 29) x ± SD Placebo (n = 25) x ± SD
Baseline Week 6 Diff Baseline Week 6 Diff
CrP (nmol/l) 26.0 ± 28.7 24.8 ± 22.6 −1.22 ± 23.37 20.8 ± 19.8 29.8 ± 42.1 9.07 ± 39.52
  < 10 nmol/l (n/%) 9 (31.0%) 9 (31.0%) 10 (40.0%) 12 (48.0%)
 10–30 nmol/l (n/%) 13 (44.8%) 13 (44.8%) 10 (40.0%) 6 (24.0%)
  > 30 nmol/l (n/%) 7 (24.1%) 7 (24.1%) 5 (20.0%) 7 (28.0%)
FPG (mmol/l) 5.49 ± 1.58 5.30 ± 1.28 − 0.20 ± 0.75 5.35 ± 0.65 5.15 ± 0.77 −0.20 ± 0.63#
  < 5.6 mmol/l 4.76 ± 0.54 4.79 ± 0.62 0.03 ± 0.39 5.04 ± 0.27 4.91 ± 0.70 − 0.13 ± 0.58
  ≥ 5.6 mmol/l 7.12 ± 1.94 6.42 ± 1.67 −0.70 ± 1.10 6.15 ± 0.65 5.79 ± 0.56 −0.36 ± 0.75
HbA1c (%) 5.77 ± 0.68 5.76 ± 0.63 −0.01 ± 0.35 5.64 ± 0.39 5.66 ± 0.33 0.02 ± 0.39
F Insulin (pmol/l)a 113.9 ± 127.5 89.5 ± 75.8 − 24.4 ± 73.4 83.6 ± 44.9 71.3 ± 51.3 −12.3 ± 54.0
  < 58 pmol/l (n/%) 10 (34.5%) 11 (37.9%) 8 (32.0%) 10 (40.0%)
  < 58 pmol/l 39.2 ± 9.9 44.7 ± 18.4 5.2 ± 19.5 41.3 ± 13.5 40.4 ± 13.3 − 0.9 ± 16.0
  ≥ 58 pmol/l 153.1 ± 143.2 113.1 ± 84.0 −39.9 ± 86.3# 103.5 ± 40.0 85.9 ± 56.3 − 17.7 ± 64.6
HOMA-IRa 4.93 ± 9.18 3.39 ± 4.00 − 1.54 ± 5.69# 2.97 ± 1.86 2.50 ± 2.17 −0.47 ± 2.26
  ≤ 2.5 (n/%) 15 (51.7%) 20 (69.0%) 14 (56.0%) 18 (72.0%)
  ≤ 2.5 1.55 ± 0.52 1.57 ± 0.59 0.03 ± 0.56 1.66 ± 0.52 1.95 ± 2.19 0.29 ± 2.02
  > 2.5 8.56 ± 12.40 5.34 ± 5.12 − 3.22 ± 7.97 4.64 ± 1.60 3.20 ± 2.03 −1.44 ± 2.28
Na (mmol/l) 143.0 ± 4.5 142.2 ± 2.7 −0.76 ± 4.25 141.9 ± 2.5 141.6 ± 2.8 −0.28 ± 2.51
  < 140 mmol/l 138.0 ± 1.2 139.0 ± 3.5 1.00 ± 2.83 138.4 ± 0.9 138.8 ± 4.4 0.40 ± 4.22
  ≥ 140 mmol/l 143.8 ± 4.3 142.8 ± 2.2 − 1.04 ± 4.41 142.8 ± 2.0 142.4 ± 1.7 − 0.45 ± 2.01
K (mmol/l) 4.44 ± 0.53 4.55 ± 0.43 0.11 ± 0.44 4.59 ± 0.37 4.50 ± 0.31 −0.09 ± 0.33*
  < 4.0 mmol/l 3.72 ± 0.17 4.08 ± 0.34 0.35 ± 0.26 3.70 4.10 0.40
  ≥ 4.0 mmol/l 4.56 ± 0.47 4.62 ± 0.40 0.07 ± 0.45 4.63 ± 0.33 4.52 ± 0.31 − 0.11 ± 0.32
Mg (mmol/l) 0.845 ± 0.069 0.858 ± 0.068 0.013 ± 0.047 0.874 ± 0.084 0.851 ± 0.068 −0.024 ± 0.056#**
  < 0.75 mmol/l 0.727 ± 0.023 0.773 ± 0.021 0.048 ± 0.035 0.72 0.77 0.05
  ≥ 0.75 mmol/l 0.859 ± 0.058 0.867 ± 0.068 0.009 ± 0.047 0.881 ± 0.079 0.854 ± 0.068 − 0.027 ± 0.055##**
Cl (mmol/l) 102.0 ± 3.4 100.9 ± 2.6 −1.03 ± 3.80 101.4 ± 2.6 101.4 ± 3.2 0.00 ± 3.20
  < 100 mmol/l 98.0 ± 1.2 99.6 ± 2.4 1.57 ± 2.51 97.8 ± 1.0 100.2 ± 2.5 2.33 ± 2.88
  ≥ 100 mmol/l 103.2 ± 2.8 101.4 ± 2.5 −1.86 ± 3.81# 102.6 ± 1.8 101.8 ± 3.4 −0.74 ± 3.00
Creatinine (μmol/l) 77.4 ± 14.6 76.4 ± 14.9 −0.95 ± 6.98 76.6 ± 17.4 75.3 ± 16.4 −1.31 ± 7.02
GFR (ml/min) 83.6 ± 13.9 85.4 ± 14.9 1.79 ± 8.09 86.1 ± 16.0 86.8 ± 16.3 0.76 ± 6.48
TC (mmo/l) 4.97 ± 1.00 5.12 ± 1.09 0.15 ± 0.66 5.25 ± 0.94 5.10 ± 1.04 −0.15 ± 0.69
  ≥ 5.2 mmol/l 5.74 ± 0.63 6.08 ± 0.79 0.34 ± 0.85 5.86 ± 0.75 5.89 ± 0.67 0.03 ± 0.37
LDL-C (mmol/l) 3.14 ± 0.97 3.10 ± 0.83 − 0.04 ± 0.44 3.39 ± 0.92 3.30 ± 0.97 −0.09 ± 0.45
  < 2.6 mmol/l 2.02 ± 0.27 2.27 ± 0.48 0.25 ± 0.45 2.11 ± 0.56 2.33 ± 0.32 0.22 ± 0.25
  ≥ 2.6 mmol/l 3.59 ± 0.76 3.43 ± 0.70 −0.15 ± 0.40 3.64 ± 0.76 3.48 ± 0.94 −0.15 ± 0.46
  < 3.3 mmol/l 2.43 ± 0.48 2.59 ± 0.51 0.16 ± 0.36 2.72 ± 0.57* 2.67 ± 0.40 − 0.05 ± 0.33
  ≥ 3.3 mmol/l 4.08 ± 0.55 3.78 ± 0.68 − 0.30 ± 0.41# 4.01 ± 0.71 3.88 ± 0.99 − 0.14 ± 0.54
HDL-C (mmol/l) 1.40 ± 0.41 1.39 ± 0.43 −0.01 ± 0.17 1.45 ± 0.47 1.40 ± 0.42 −0.05 ± 0.17
TG (mmol/l) 1.56 ± 0.77 1.97 ± 1.86 0.42 ± 1.30# 1.34 ± 0.53 1.36 ± 0.50 0.02 ± 0.58
  ≥ 1.7 mmol/l 2.63 ± 0.57 3.71 ± 2.95 1.08 ± 2.41 2.08 ± 0.28* 1.71 ± 0.61 −0.37 ± 0.76
Uric acid (μmol/l) 338 ± 90 331 ± 80 − 7.2 ± 42.1 315 ± 100 308 ± 91 − 6.9 ± 39.9
Gamma-GT (μkat/l) 0.64 ± 0.83 0.63 ± 0.72 −0.01 ± 0.17 0.53 ± 0.29 0.52 ± 0.26 −0.01 ± 0.17
ASAT (μkat/l) 0.42 ± 0.20 0.42 ± 0.11 0.00 ± 0.14 0.40 ± 0.11 0.40 ± 0.13 0.00 ± 0.09
ALAT (μkat/l) 0.47 ± 0.24 0.46 ± 0.21 − 0.02 ± 0.16 0.43 ± 0.26 0.45 ± 0.28 0.02 ± 0.11
TSH (μIU/ml) 2.15 ± 1.17 1.96 ± 1.06 −0.19 ± 0.52# 2.19 ± 1.20 1.92 ± 1.00 −0.28 ± 0.57#
24 h urinary collection
 Na (mmol/24 h) 193.7 ± 73.6 186.7 ± 76.0 −7.0 ± 79.7 167.9 ± 53.5 177.4 ± 64.1 9.5 ± 46.8
 K (mmol/24 h) 68.2 ± 25.3 76.6 ± 26.2 8.4 ± 28.0 67.3 ± 19.3 71.6 ± 22.5 4.2 ± 18.0
 K i.S./K (24 h) 0.072 ± 0.023 0.067 ± 0.027 − 0.005 ± 0.028 0.076 ± 0.034 0.069 ± 0.021 −0.008 ± 0.030
 Mg (mmol/24 h) 4.03 ± 1.14 4.79 ± 1.79 0.76 ± 1.85# 3.78 ± 1.45 3.86 ± 1.88 0.08 ± 1.75*
 Mg i.S./Mg (24 h) 0.227 ± 0.070 0.221 ± 0.162 −0.006 ± 0.180 0.260 ± 0.095 0.268 ± 0.121 0.008 ± 0.093
 Cl (mmol/24 h) 175.6 ± 70.2 174.9 ± 76.9 −0.72 ± 74.63 153.5 ± 54.9 161.2 ± 70.7 7.72 ± 43.40
 Albumin (mg/24 h) 10.8 ± 19.2 12.0 ± 26.4 1.17 ± 15.42 9.5 ± 17.2 11.7 ± 18.8 2.24 ± 5.88
 Albumin/crea (24 h) 0.82 ± 1.40 0.80 ± 1.36 −0.02 ± 0.36 0.77 ± 1.31 0.96 ± 1.55 0.20 ± 0.48
  1. Abbreviations: HK haematocrit, MCHC mean corpuscular/cellular haemoglobin concentration, MCV mean corpuscular/cell volume, CrP C reactive protein, FPG fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin A1c, F Insulin fasting insulin, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, Na natrium, K potassium, MG magnesium, Cl chloride, GFR glomerular filtration rate, TC total cholesterol, LDL-C LDL-cholesterol, HDL-C HDL-cholesterol, TG triglycerides, ASAT aspartate-aminotranferase, ALAT alanin-aminotranferase, TSH thyroid stimulating hormone, # p < 0.05 within the group, ## p < 0.01 within the group, * p < 0.05 between the groups, ** p < 0.01 between the groups, aLarge variation coefficients indicate statistical outliers. By sensitivity analyses the influence of these statistical outliers was checked. The results in the full analysis set were confirmed