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Table 5 Predictors of hospitalization due to any cause using Cox regression analysis

From: Importance of iron deficiency in patients with chronic heart failure as a predictor of mortality and hospitalizations: insights from an observational cohort study

Variables Univariate HR P value Multivariate HR P value
Age (per 5 years) 1.17 (1.13–1.20) < 0.001 1.06 (1.02–1.09) 0.001
Female sex 1.29 (1.12–1.45) < 0.001   
Hypertension 1.42 (1.22–1.65) < 0.001   
Diabetes Mellitus 1.46 (1.27–1.68) < 0.001 1.23 (1.06–1.42) 0.006
COPD 1.56 (1.32–1.84) < 0.001 1.44 (1.21–1.71) < 0.001
HFPEF 1.40 (1.20–1.63) < 0.001 1.44 (1.21–1.73) < 0.001
Ischaemic aetiology 1.16 (1.01–1.33) 0.032 1.32 (1.14–1.54) < 0.001
NYHA class III-IV 2.03 (1.77–2.34) < 0.001 1.40 (1.20–1.64) < 0.001
Systolic BP (per 10 mmHg) 1.01 (0.98–1.04) 0.522   
Heart rate (per 10 bpm) 1.13 (1.08–1.19) < 0.001 1.07 (1.02–1.12) 0.006
BMI (per 1 kg/m2) 0.99 (0.97–0.99) 0.033   
ACE-I or ARB 0.50 (0.41–0.61) < 0.001 0.80 (0.65–0.98) 0.030
Beta blockers 0.51 (0.43–0.62) < 0.001 0.69 (0.57–0.86) 0.001
Diuretics 1.70 (1.36–2.12) < 0.001 1.31 (1.04–1.65) 0.022
MRAs 0.95 (0.83–1.09) 0.488   
Digoxin 1.01 (0.86–1.18) 0.940   
ICD 0.88 (0.69–1.12) 0.284   
Iron deficiency 1.21 (1.05–1.39) 0.007 0.99 (0.86–1.14) 0.857
Haemoglobin (per 1 g/dL) 0.85 (0.81–0.88) < 0.001 0.94 (0.90–0.98) 0.002
LogNT-proBNP (per 1 SD) 1.53 (1.42–1.64) < 0.001 1.31 (1.20–1.42) < 0.001
Sodium (per 5 mmol/L) 0.89 (0.80–0.98) 0.023   
eGFR (per 5 ml/min/1.73m2) 0.95 (0.94–0.96) < 0.001   
  1. HR Hazard Ratio, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, HFPEF Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, NYHA New York Heart Association, BP Blood pressure, bpm beats per minute, BMI Body mass index, ACE-I Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB Angiotensin II receptor blocker, MRAs Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, ICD Implantable cardioverter defibrillator, Log Logarithmic transformation, NTproBNP N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, SD Standard deviation, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate
  2. We included the following variables in the multivariate analysis: Haemoglobin, sex, age, HFPEF, BMI, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, COPD, ischaemic aetiology, logNTproBNP, eGFR, serum sodium, systolic BP, heart rate, NYHA functional class III-IV and treatment with ACE-I/ARB, Beta-blockers and diuretics