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Table 4 Predictors of heart failure hospitalization using Cox regression analysis

From: Importance of iron deficiency in patients with chronic heart failure as a predictor of mortality and hospitalizations: insights from an observational cohort study

Variables Univariate HR P value Multivariate HR P value
Age (per 5 years) 1.23 (1.18–1.29) < 0.001 1.11 (1.05–1.17) < 0.001
Female sex 1.50 (1.25–1.83) < 0.001   
Hypertension 1.47 (1.19–1.81) < 0.001   
Diabetes Mellitus 1.46 (1.20–1.77) < 0.001 1.26 (1.03–1.54) 0.026
COPD 1.76 (1.41–2.19) < 0.001 1.63 (1.28–2.07) < 0.001
HFPEF 1.60 (1.30–1.97) < 0.001 1.67 (1.31–2.18) < 0.001
Ischaemic aetiology 1.14 (0.95–1.38) 0.166 1.40 (1.12–1.73) 0.003
NYHA class III-IV 2.55 (2.10–3.09) < 0.001 1.64 (1.33–2.03) < 0.001
Systolic BP (per 10 mmHg) 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 0.123   
Heart rate (per 10 bpm) 1.09 (1.03–1.16) 0.005   
BMI (per 1 kg/m2) 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 0.21   
ACE-I or ARB 0.47 (0.37–0.61) < 0.001   
Beta blockers 0.46 (0.36–0.58) < 0.001 0.71 (0.54–0.93) 0.013
Diuretics 3.47 (2.28–5.28) < 0.001 2.53 (1.64–3.91) < 0.001
MRAs 1.10 (0.91–1.33) 0.327   
Digoxin 1.13 (0.91–1.40) 0.263   
ICD 0.91 (0.66–1.27) 0.581   
Iron deficiency 1.21 (1.00–1.47) 0.047 0.96 (0.78–1.17) 0.677
Haemoglobin (per 1 g/dL) 0.84 (0.80–0.89) < 0.001   
Log NT-proBNP (per 1 SD) 2.00 (1.87–2.15) < 0.001 1.49 (1.32–1.68) < 0.001
Sodium (per 5 mmol/L) 0.93 (0.81–1.07) 0.328   
eGFR (per 5 ml/min/1.73m2) 0.95 (0.93–0.97) < 0.001   
  1. HR Hazard Ratio, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, HFPEF Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, NYHA New York Heart Association, BP Blood pressure, BMI Body mass index, ACE-I Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB Angiotensin II receptor blocker, MRAs Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, ICD Implantable cardioverter defibrillator, Log Logarithmic transformation, NTproBNP N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, SD Standard deviation, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate
  2. Variables introduced in the multivariate model were gender, age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, BMI, ischaemic aeetiology, systolic blood pressure, COPD, HFPEF, heart rate, NYHA functional class III-IV, haemoglobin, logNT-proBNP, eGFR and treatment with ACE-i/ARBs, beta blockers, diuretics and MRAs