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Table 3 Predictors of mortality using cox regression analysis

From: Importance of iron deficiency in patients with chronic heart failure as a predictor of mortality and hospitalizations: insights from an observational cohort study

Variables Univariate HR P value Multivariate HR P value
Age (per 5 years) 1.36 (1.30–1.42) < 0.001 1.21 (1.16–1.27) < 0.001
Female sex 1.08 (0.90–1.30) 0.39 0.65 (0.54–0.79) < 0.001
Hypertension 1.35 (1.12–1.63) 0.002   
Diabetes Mellitus 1.51 (1.27–1.80) < 0.001 1.30 (1.08–1.55) 0.005
COPD 1.63 (1.33–1.99) < 0.001   
HFPEF 1.11 (0.90–1.36) 0.34   
Ischaemic aetiology 1.09 (0.92–1.30) 0.33   
NYHA class III-IV 3.14 (2.63–3.74) < 0.001 1.85 (1.53–2.24) < 0.001
Systolic BP (per 10 mmHg) 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 0.112   
Heart rate (per 10 bpm) 1.09 (1.03–1.16) 0.004   
BMI (1 kg/m2) 0.96 (0.95–0.98) < 0.001   
ACE-I or ARB 0.37 (0.29–0.46) < 0.001 0.70 (0.55–0.89) 0.004
Beta blockers 0.41 (0.33–0.51) < 0.001 0.59 (0.47–0.74) < 0.001
Diuretics 2.46 (1.77–3.42) < 0.001 1.66 (1.19–2.31) 0.005
MRAs 0.97 (0.82–1.16) 0.77   
Digoxin 1.26 (1.05–1.52) 0.015   
ICD 0.72 (0.52–0.98) 0.039   
Iron deficiency 1.32 (1.11–1.57) 0.002 1.09 (0.91–1.31) 0.337
Haemoglobin (per 1 g/dL) 0.78 (0.75–0.82) < 0.001 0.90 (0.85–0.95) < 0.001
Log NT-proBNP (per 1 SD) 1.93 (1.76–2.11) < 0.001 1.49 (1.34–1.66) < 0.001
Sodium (per 5 mmol/L) 0.78 (0.69–0.88) < 0.001 0.96 (0.94–0.99) 0.003
eGFR (per 5 ml/min/1.73m2) 0.89 (0.87–0.91) < 0.001   
  1. HR Hazard Ratio, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, HFPEF Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, NYHA New York Heart Association, BP Blood pressure, BMI Body mass index, ACE-I Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB Angiotensin II receptor blocker, MRAs Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, ICD Implantable cardioverter defibrillator, Log Logarithmic transformation, NTproBNP N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, SD Standard deviation, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate
  2. Variables introduced in the multivariate model were: Age, gender, ischaemic aetiology, systolic BP, HFPEF, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, COPD, BMI, NYHA functional class III-IV, haemoglobin, logNT-proBNP, eGFR, sodium, heart rate, treatment with beta blockers, ACE-i/ARBs, diuretics, digoxin and an ICD