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Table 2 Predictors of iron deficiency using logistic regression analysis

From: Importance of iron deficiency in patients with chronic heart failure as a predictor of mortality and hospitalizations: insights from an observational cohort study

Variables Univariate OR P value Multivariate OR P value
Age (per 5 years) 1.09 (1.05–1.13) < 0.001   
Female sex 2.05 (1.67–2.53) 0.396 1.62 (1.29–2.03) < 0.001
Hypertension 1.50 (1.23–1.85) < 0.001   
Diabetes Mellitus 1.44 (1.18–1.76) < 0.001   
COPD 0.86 (0.67–1.10) 0.223   
HFPEF 1.25 (1.00–1.56) 0.047   
Ischaemic aetiology 1.15 (0.94–1.39) 0.175   
NYHA class III-IV 1.84 (1.50–2.26) < 0.001 1.50 (1.20–1.88) < 0.001
Systolic BP (per 10 mmHg) 1.11 (1.06–1.16) < 0.001 1.09 (1.04–1.14) < 0.001
Heart rate (per 10 bpm) 1.03 (0.97–1.10) 0.379   
BMI (1 kg/m2) 1.03 (1.01–1.04) 0.008 1.03 (1.00–1.05) 0.018
ACE-I or ARB 0.71 (0.53–0.95) 0.021   
Beta blockers 0.96 (0.72–1.28) 0.781   
Diuretics 1.50 (1.13–1.98) 0.005   
MRAs 0.81 (0.66–0.98) 0.028   
Digoxin 1.00 (0.80–1.26) 0.988   
Oral anticoagulants 0.96 (0.79–1.17) 0.690   
Antiplatelet 0.99 (0.82–1.20) 0.921   
ICD 1.02 (0.71–1.44) 0.94   
Haemoglobin (per 1 g/dL) 0.82 (0.78–0.87) < 0.001 0.87 (0.82–0.92) < 0.001
Log NT-proBNP (per 1 SD) 1.20 (1.09–1.33) < 0.001 1.12 (0.99–1.25) 0.051
Sodium (per 5 mmol/L) 1.17 (1.02–1.34) 0.030   
eGFR (per 5 ml/min/1.73m2) 0.98 (0.96–0.99) 0.016   
  1. OR Odds Ratio, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, HFPEF Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, NYHA New York Heart Association, BP Blood pressure, BMI Body mass index, ACE-I Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB Angiotensin II receptor blocker, MRAs Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, ICD Implantable cardioverter defibrillator, Log Logarithmic transformation, NTproBNP N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, SD Standard deviation, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate
  2. Variables introduced in the multivariate model were: Age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, COPD, HFPEF, NYHA functional class III-IV, systolic BP, heart rate, BMI, haemoglobin, logNT-proBNP, eGFR, sodium, treatment with beta blockers, ACE-i/ARBs, diuretics and MRAs