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Table 4 Characteristics of patients on secondary prevention

From: Time trends in statin use and incidence of recurrent cardiovascular events in secondary prevention between 1999 and 2013: a registry-based study

Variables 1999 2013 Age group in 2013
Total (n = 4007) Total (n = 6295) 50–59 years (n = 1077) 60–79 years (n = 3211) 80+ years (n = 2077)
n (%) or Median [P25; P75] n (%) or Median [P25; P75] n (%) or Median [P25; P75] Statin use cat.a % Statin use ref. cat.b % n (%) or Median [P25; P75] Statin use cat.a % Statin use ref. cat.b % n (%) or Median [P25; P75] Statin use cat.a % Statin use ref. cat.b %
Statin use, n (%) 295 (7.4) 2477 (39.3) 330 (32.8)    1614 (50.3)    533 (25.7)   
Baseline characteristics
 Age (years), median [IQR] 73 [66; 79] 74 [64; 82] 55 [52; 57]    70 [65; 75]    85 [82; 89]   
 Women, n (%) 1839 (45.9) 2871 (45.6) 448 (44.5) 24.1*** 39.7 1280 (39.9) 41.6*** 56.0 1143 (55) 20.4*** 32.1
 LDL measurement, n (%) 1559 (38.9) 2405 (38.2) 421 (42.0) 23.3*** 39.6 1040 (32.4) 38.8*** 55.8 944 (45.5) 14.6*** 34.9
Type of CVD history
 MI, n (%) 848 (21.2) 1507 (23.9) 331 (32.9) 36.3* 31.1 786 (24.5) 59.0*** 47.4 390 (18.8) 31.0** 24.4
 Stroke, n (%) 831 (20.7) 1496 (23.8) 248 (24.6) 29.8 33.7 672 (20.9) 46.3** 51.3 576 (27.7) 20.5*** 27.6
 TIA, n (%) 631 (15.7) 963 (15.3) 67 (6.7) 41.8 32.1 414 (12.9) 49.3 50.4 482 (23.2) 21.8** 26.8
 IHD without angina, n (%) 754 (18.8) 1147 (18.2) 144 (14.3) 42.4** 31.2 648 (20.2) 61.3*** 47.5 355 (17.1) 33.2*** 24.1
 IHD with angina, n (%) 1582 (39.5) 1809 (28.7) 173 (17.2) 46.8*** 29.9 938 (29.2) 54.1** 48.7 698 (33.6) 27.5 24.7
 PAD, n (%) 1011 (25.2) 1669 (26.5) 242 (24.0) 27.3** 34.5 873 (27.2) 45.9** 51.9 554 (26.7) 27.4 25.0
Comorbidities
 Atrial fibrillation, n (%) 430 (10.7) 870 (13.8) 24 (2.4) 45.8 32.5 359 (11.2) 53.8 49.8 487 (23.4) 21.1** 27.0
 Hypercholesterolemia, n (%) 1040 (26.0) 2075 (33.0) 292 (29.0) 50.7*** 25.5 1134 (35.3) 60.6*** 44.6 649 (31.2) 34.2*** 21.8
Hypertension, n (%) 1396 (34.8) 2772 (44.0) 344 (34.2) 36.6* 30.8 1422 (44.3) 51.7 49.1 1006 (48.4) 24.8 26.5
Mental disorder, n (%) 625 (15.6) 1310 (20.8) 289 (28.7) 32.5 32.9 627 (19.5) 45.1** 51.5 394 (19.0) 17.5*** 27.6
Co-medications
Aspirin and antihypertensive agents
 Aspirin + RAS and
 Non-RAS
75 (1.9) 707 (11.2) 88 (8.7) Ref cat   458 (14.3) Ref cat   161 (7.8) Ref cat  
 Aspirin + RAS or
 Non-RAS, n (%)
295 (7.4) 1464 (23.3) 171 (17.0) 73.5 80.7 959 (29.9) 73.7** 81.0 334 (16.1) 63.0** 70.8
 Aspirin alone, n (%) 68 (1.7) 226 (3.6) 45 (4.5) 68.9 80.7 147 (4.6) 58.5*** 81.0 34 (1.6) 44.1*** 70.8
 RAS or Non-RAS and no aspirin, n (%) 702 (17.5) 1808 (28.7) 256 (25.4) 38.7*** 80.7 1014 (31.6) 60.4*** 81.0 538 (25.9) 44.8*** 70.8
 None of these 3 categories, n (%) 2942 (73.4) 2797 (44.4) 535 (53.1) 12.7*** 80.7 1091 (34.0) 16.1*** 81.0 1171 (56.4) 4.6*** 70.8
 Other lipid-lowering medication 73 (4.3) 237 (3.8) 37 (3.7) 48.6** 32.2 164 (5.1) 43.3* 50.6 36 (1.7) 30.6 25.6
Charlson comorbidity index
 mCCI indexc, median [IQR] 5 [3; 6] 5 [4; 7] 3 [2; 4]    5 [4; 6]    7 [6; 8]   
 MI/ IHD w/o angina, n (%) 1395 (34.8) 2364 (37.6) 442 (43.9) 36.4** 29.9 1269 (39.5) 59.3*** 44.3 653 (31.4) 32.3*** 22.6
 Heart failure, n (%) 364 (9.1) 500 (7.9) 20 (2.0) 55.0** 32.3 156 (4.9) 59.6** 49.8 324 (15.6) 19.1** 26.9
 PAD, n (%) 1011 (25.2) 1669 (26.5) 242 (24.0) 27.3** 34.5 873 (27.2) 45.9** 51.9 554 (26.7) 27.4 25.0
 TIA/stroke, n (%) 1333 (33.3) 2283 (36.3) 305 (30.3) 31.8 33.2 1014 (31.6) 46.6** 51.9 964 (46.4) 21.1*** 29.6
Dementia, n (%) 94 (2.3) 301 (4.8) 17 (1.7) 23.5 32.9 87 (2.7) 40.2* 50.5 197 (9.5) 14.7*** 26.8
COPD/asthma, n (%) 579 (14.4) 1580 (25.1) 276 (27.4) 31.9 33.1 862 (26.8) 48.4 51.0 442 (21.3) 24.7 25.9
GI ulcer, n (%) 471 (11.8) 647 (10.3) 65 (6.5) 30.8 32.9 331 (10.3) 49.5 50.3 251 (12.1) 21.9 26.2
Liver disease, n (%) 110 (2.7) 361 (5.7) 52 (5.2) 40.4 32.4 200 (6.2) 48.0 50.4 109 (5.2) 20.2 26.0
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 644 (16.1) 1587 (25.2) 235 (23.3) 38.7** 31.0 855 (26.6) 58.9*** 47.1 497 (23.9) 27.4 25.1
Paralysis, n (%) 122 (3.0) 141 (2.2) 18 (1.8) 55.6** 32.4 65 (2.0) 43.1 50.4 58 (2.8) 15.5* 26.0
Cancer, n (%) 382 (9.5) 1207 (19.2) 191 (19.0) 20.9*** 35.5 631 (19.7) 43.3*** 52.0 385 (18.5) 23.4 26.2
Leukaemia, n (%) 9 (0.2) 40 (0.6) 10 (1.0) 20.0 32.9 15 (0.5) 46.7 50.3 15 (0.7) 33.3 25.6
Hodgkin’s lymphoma, n (%) 12 (0.3) 44 (0.7) 6 (0.6) 16.7 32.9 27 (0.8) 40.7 50.3 11 (0.5) 36.4 25.6
HIV-infection/ AIDS, n (%) NA NA NA         
Renal insufficiencyd, n (%)
 Yes vs no 468 (11.7) 665 (10.6) 14 (1.4) 50.0 37.7 192 (6.0) 49.5 54.6 459 (22.1) 25.3** 31.9
 Not measured vs measured 755 (18.8) 970 (15.4) 214 (21.3) 13.6*** 38.0 372 (11.6) 19.6*** 54.3 384 (18.5) 6.0*** 30.1
  1. IQR inter-quartile range, LDL low-density lipoprotein, CVD cardiovascular disease, MI myocardial infarction, TIA transient ischemic attack, IHD ischemic heart disease, PAD peripheral arterial disease, RAS renin-angiotensin system, mCCI modified Charlson comorbidity index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, GI gastro-intestinal (duodenal or gastric)
  2. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.10 (p-values are derived from a simple logistic regression model)
  3. aStatin use cat.: statin use in the category of interest; bStatin use ref. cat.: statin use in the category of reference; cMissing kidney function is treated as a score of 0; dthe last value of the creatinine was taken if it was measured in the last 3 years. The eGFR was computed using the MDRD formula and if eGFR< 45 = > renal insufficiency