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Table 2 Escherichia coli endocarditis cases in the past 30 years

From: Native valve endocarditis due to Escherichia coli infection: a case report and review of the literature

Case No. First author, year Age, years Sex Comorbidities Pre-ceding UTI Complications during hospitalization Antibiotic therapy Site of vegetation Cardiac surgery Outcome
1 Murray [10] 1988 25 M None Pulmonary infarction PC + GM+ MNZ PV Resection of anterior PV leaflet A
2 Watanakunakorn [11] 1992 79 F DM, HT Hemorrhagic CI, CHF CFX→ CAZ + GM→CZX MV-anterior leaflet D (37 days)
3 Raymond [12] 1992 52 F None + E. coli positive Abscess of IVS, CHF CTRX AV D (8 days)
4 Oosterbosch [13] 1996 69 F Multiple myeloma + E. coli positive LV aneurysm formation, severe MR, CHF Temocillin→CXM + AMK MV-posterior leaflet D (8 days)
5 Morrison [14] 1997 47 M Multiple tooth decay, chronic alcoholism, bicuspid AV +E. coli positive Renal infarction CTRX AV-RCC AVR (MP) A
6 Soma [15] 2005 42 M AS and AR, urethral stenosis +E. coli positive Aortic paravalvular abscess formation TMP-SMX→CTX + GM→ABPC+netilmicin AV, AV ring abscess AVR (MP) A
7 Branger [16] 2005 60 F Colic polyposis, AF, history of RF, IE, and post-AVR (BP) Aortic regurgitation, CHF AMPC/CVA + MNZ→AMPC+MNG + GM→CAZ + CPFX AV (BP) AVR (MP) A
8 Branger [16] 2005 75 F DM, HT, bilateral pyelonephritis, vesicular stenosis + E. coli positive Cerebral infarction, mitraltendon rupture, renal failure CTRX+OFLX MV MV annuloplasty A
9 Branger [16] 2005 76 M RF, MS→ Post-MVR (MP), colic diverticulosis, kidney cancer Renal failure AMPC/CVA + CPFX MV (MP) A
10 Branger [16] 2005 80 M Ischemic cardiomyopathy, stroke, heart failure Renal failure, Coxiella burnetii serology-positive, humeral osteomyelitis AMPC+GM + DOXY+hydroxychloroquine AV D (1 month)
11 Branger [16] 2005 66 F MS→post-MVR (MP) +E. coli positive Renal failure, MV ring abscess IPM + GM→CTRX MV (MP), MV ring abscess MVR (BP) A
12 Branger [16] 2005 82 F DM, thyroid neoplasm + E. coli positive Abscess formation, MV ring abscess, perforation, pneumonia CTRX+OFLX→AMPC+GM MV, MV ring abscess MVR (BP) A
13 Branger [16] 2005 76 F RF, post-MVR (BP) + Renal failure, mitral regurgitation Unknown MV (BP) Unknown Unknown
14 Kulas [17] 2006 16 F Puerperal onset after a cesarean section, MR AMPC/CVA+ GM + MNZ+ oral CLDM MV A
15 Foley [18] 2010 31 F Tricuspid regurgitation, septic emboli in the lung MEPM+MNZ→Oral AMPC→IPM + GM TV anterior leaflet Resection of anterior TV leaflet A
16 Tsutsumi [19] 2010 60 M End-stage alcoholic liver disease, blunt injury of the left arm Osteomyelitis of the left sacroiliac and right sternoclavicular joints, septic emboli in the lung CTRX→MEPM→CTRX TV anterior leaflet A
17 Lauridsen [20] 2011 67 M Acute acalculous cholecystitis +E. coli positive MR, valve perforation, LV pseudoaneurysm formation, CHF, spondylodiscitis, endophthalmitis CXM + GM + MNZ→MEPM+GM MV posterior leaflet MVR (MP) A
18 Fordyce [21] 2011 72 M Post-biopsy of the prostate, sciatica, PAF, AS, MS, MR + E. coli positive Transient complete atrioventricular block *ESBL-producing E. coli infection CTRX→ Ertapenem→ IPM + GM TV septal leaflet A
19 Modi [22] 2011 62 F MR→Post-MVR (BP), old CI, PC allergy - *ESBL-producing E. coli infection AZT + VCM→IPM MV (BP) A
20 Senel [23] 2012 60 M Post-AVR (MP), post-hemorrhoidectomy Unknown First-degree atrioventricular block, pseudomembranous enteritis, AV ring abscess SBT/ABPC→AMPC/CVA→SBT/ABPC+GM AV (MP), AV ring abscess AVR (MP) A
21 Lupse [24] 2012 75 F Post-cholecystectomy, biliary stenosis and stenting, AR, MR -*ESBL-producing E. coli infection SBT/ABPC→IPM AV A
22 Rangarajan [25] 2013 54 M DM, HT, Post-meatotomy and circumcision + Severe MR, TIA, CHF, respiratory distress, renal dysfunction SBT/CPZ + AMK→SBT/CPZ + LVFX MV anterior leaflet MVR (MP) A
23 Gupta [26] 2013 0 M PDA, VSD, trisomy 18 Bilateral hydroureteronephrosis ABPC+GM→unknown SVC-RA junction A
24 Spaleniak [27] 2015 76 F Goodpasture’s syndrome Unknown Renal failure *ESBL-producing E. coli infection IPM + CPFX→IPM + AMK MV anterior leaflet A
25 Chen [28] 2015 46 F Severe AR, bicuspid AV + Severe pulmonary hypertension, CHF TAZ/PIPC +GM→CAZ + GM AV and MV anterior leaflet A
26 Tsai [29] 2015 40 M IgA nephropathy, CRF on HD Unknown Necrotizing fasciitis, septic shock, intracranial hemorrhage CAZ + VCM LV details unknown D (3 weeks)
27 Loubet [30] 2015 53 Unknown DM, recent invasive procedure + -*ESBL-producing E. coli infection IPM + AMK AV A
28 Loubet [30] 2015 82 Unknown Post-AVR (BP), recent invasive procedure + Intracardiac abscess Unknown AV (BP) +Details unknown A
29 Loubet [30] 2015 74 Unknown Post-MVR (MP) Intracardiac abscess, systemic embolization CTRX+AMK MV (MP) +Details unknown A
30 Loubet [30] 2015 74 Unknown DM, post-AVR (MP) + Intracardiac abscess CTX + OFLX AV (MP) +Details unknown D (9 months)
31 Menon [31] 2017 58 M Post-renal transplant + E. coli positive CTRX+AMK AV A
32 Kim [32] 2018 80 F Thickened MV leaflets, DM, HT, history of pyelonephritis due to E. coli +E. coli positive Multiple cerebral and cerebellar infarctions, emphysematous IE *ESBL-producing E. coli infection MEPM MV annulus D (39 days)
33 Akuzawa 2018 58 F Alcohol abuse Purulent spondylitis SBT/ABPC +GM→MEPM+GM MV anterior leaflet and chordae tendineae A
  1. Abbreviations: A alive, ABPC aminobenzylpenicillin, AMPC amoxicillin, AF atrial fibrillation, AMK amikacin, AS aortic stenosis, AR aortic regurgitation, AV aortic valve, AVR aortic valve replacement, AZT aztreonam, BP biological prosthesis, CAZ ceftazidime, CFX cefoxitin, CHF congestive heart failure, CI cerebral infarction, CLDM clindamycin, CPFX ciprofloxacin, CPZ cefoperazone, CRF chronic renal failure, CTRX ceftriaxone, CTX cefotaxime, CVA clavulanate, CXM cefuroxime, CZX ceftizoxime, D dead, DM diabetes mellitus, DOXY doxycycline, ESBL extended-spectrum β-lactamase, F female, GM gentamicin, HD hemodialysis, HT hypertension, IE endocarditis, IVS interventricular septum, IPM imipenem, LV left ventricle, M male, MNZ metronidazole, MEPM meropenem, MP mechanical prosthesis, MR mitral regurgitation, MS mitral stenosis, MV mitral valve, MVR mitral valve replacement, OFLX ofloxacin, PAF paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, PC penicillin, PDA patent ductus arteriosus, PIPC piperacillin, PV pulmonary valve, RA right atrium, RCC right coronary cusp, RF rheumatic fever, SBT sulbactam, SVC superior vena cava, TAZ tazobactam, TMP-SMX trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, TV tricuspid valve, UTI urinary tract infection, VCM vancomycin, VSD ventricular septal defect. *ESBL-producing E. coli infection (highlighted by underlining)