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Table 2 Perioperative univariate analysis of AKI

From: Impact of cardiac catheterization timing and contrast media dose on acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery

  No AKI (N = 657) AKI (N = 412) P
Demographic data
 Male 394(60.0) 273(66.3) 0.039
 Age (year) 61.8 ± 8.1 61.7 ± 8.3 0.936
Medical history
 Hypertension 294(44.7) 184(44.7) 0.977
 DM 102(15.5) 70(17.0) 0.526
 NYHA classification 3–4 465(70.8) 339(82.3) < 0.001
Laboratory values
 Hemoglobin (g/L) 131.6 ± 14.2 131.1 ± 16.1 0.555
 Albumin(g/L) 40.3 ± 3.6 40.0 ± 3.6 0.187
Kidney function
 Serum creatinine (mg/dl) 81.3 ± 25.1 84.5 ± 23.8 0.038
 eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) 83.9 ± 18.7 82.8 ± 21.3 0.395
 eGFR< 60 ml/min/1.73m2 54(8.4) 50(12.1) 0.048
Angiographic values
 Interval between angiography and surgery (day) 4.5 ± 3.3 4.1 ± 3.0 0.048
aContrast media dose (ml/kg) 285(243,341) 280(238,347) 0.696
 Contrast media dose> 240 (ml/kg) 434(66.1) 302(73.3) 0.040
Surgical data
 Valve 427(65.0) 305(74.0) < 0.001
 CABG 205(31.2) 77(18.7) < 0.001
 Valve & CABG 25(3.8) 30(7.3) 0.026
 CPB utilization 443(67.3) 319(77.4) < 0.001
aCPB time (min) 83(67,109) 100(77,132) < 0.001
bErythrocyte transfusion 296(44.6) 223(54.1) 0.04
Prognosis
 RRT 3(0.5) 17(4.1) < 0.001
 In-hospital mortality 0 3(0.7) 0.029
aLength of ICU stay (day) 32(21,63) 47(26,90) < 0.001
aLength of hospital stay (day) 12(10,15) 13(11,17) 0.003
  1. AKI acute kidney injury, DM diabetes mellitus, NYHA New York Heart Association, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, calculated by CKD-EPI formulae, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, CPB cardiopulmonary bypass, RRT renal replacement therapy, ICU intensive care unit
  2. P-values are the results of unpaired t-test or Mann–Whitney U test for continuous variables, and ×2 test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables
  3. aThe values are expressed as the median (IQR)
  4. bThe amount of erythrocyte transfusion refers to the amount of transfusion during both intraoperative and postoperative on the day of surgery