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Table 5 Distribution of Chinese HFD-index in participants of two studies

From: Using an introduced index to assess the association between food diversity and metabolic syndrome and its components in Chinese adults

Factor Group CUADHS CHNS
\( \overline{x}\pm s \) P \( \overline{x}\pm s \) P
Total 0.41 ± 0.10   0.38 ± 0.06  
Gender Male 0.38 ± 0.10 <0.001 0.37 ± 0.06 <0.001
Female 0.42 ± 0.10 0.38 ± 0.06
Age 18~ 44.9 years 0.39 ± 0.10 <0.001 0.37 ± 0.06 0.001
45~ 54.9 years 0.41 ± 0.10 0.38 ± 0.06
55~ 64.9 years 0.40 ± 0.10 0.38 ± 0.06
≥65 years 0.42 ± 0.10 0.38 ± 0.07
Educational attainment Illiterate 0.39 ± 0.09 0.018 0.36 ± 0.06 <0.001
Middle school or lower 0.40 ± 0.10 0.37 ± 0.06
High school or professional training education 0.42 ± 0.10 0.39 ± 0.07
Undergraduate education or higher 0.41 ± 0.10 0.41 ± 0.07
Drinking behavior Yes 0.40 ± 0.10 0.001 0.37 ± 0.06 <0.001
No 0.42 ± 0.10 0.38 ± 0.06
Smoking behavior Never smoked 0.42 ± 0.10 <0.001 0.38 ± 0.06 <0.001
Former smoker 0.39 ± 0.11 0.38 ± 0.07
Current smoker 0.37 ± 0.09 0.37 ± 0.06
BMI <18.5 kg/m2 0.40 ± 0.09 0.367 0.38 ± 0.06 0.875
18.5~ 24.0 kg/m2 0.41 ± 0.10 0.38 ± 0.06
24.0~ 28.0 kg/m2 0.41 ± 0.10 0.38 ± 0.06
≥28.0 kg/m2 0.40 ± 0.10 0.37 ± 0.07
Physical activitya Sedentary group 0.40 ± 0.09 0.443 0.38 ± 0.06 <0.001
T1 0.41 ± 0.10 0.38 ± 0.06
T2 0.41 ± 0.10 0.38 ± 0.06
T3 0.41 ± 0.10 0.37 ± 0.06
Energy intakeb Q1 0.41 ± 0.10 <0.001 0.38 ± 0.07 <0.001
Q2 0.42 ± 0.10 0.38 ± 0.06
Q3 0.41 ± 0.09 0.38 ± 0.06
Q4 0.39 ± 0.10 0.36 ± 0.06
  1. Note:aSubjects who only reported sedentary behaviors were classified as Sedentary group, the others were trisected into three groups (T1, T2 and T3) according to the calculated metabolic equivalents (MET)/d from the smallest to the highest;
  2. bEnergy intakes were quadrisected into four groups (Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4) from the smallest to the highest