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Table 4 General characteristics of participants and the distribution of MetS and its components of CHNS

From: Using an introduced index to assess the association between food diversity and metabolic syndrome and its components in Chinese adults

Factor Group N Elevated WC Elevated fasting glucose Elevated blood pressure Elevated TC Reduced HDL MetS
% P % P % P % P % P % P
Total 2398 36.2   33.1   33.3   36.2   28.1   27.3  
Gender Male 1106 37 0.485 35.5 0.018 36.7 <0.001 42 <0.001 21.3 <0.001 28.7 0.171
Female 1292 35.6 31 30.3 31.2 33.9 26.2
Age 18~ 44.9 years 742 22.8 <0.001 20.1 <0.001 10 <0.001 32.1 0.014 28 0.935 14.3 <0.001
45~ 54.9 years 608 33.7 31.7 27.1 36.3 27.6 23.8
55~ 64.9 years 496 45.4 40.7 42.5 40.9 29.2 35.9
≥65 years 552 48.9 45.1 63 37.3 27.7 40.9
Educational attainment Illiterate 192 52.1 <0.001 42.7 <0.001 61.5 <0.001 32.8 0.311 29.2 0.929 40.6 <0.001
Middle school or lower 1145 40.1 37.7 36 37.8 28.6 30.9
High school or professional training education 755 28.1 26 27.3 34.3 27.7 20.4
Undergraduate education or higher 303 32.3 27.1 20.1 37.3 27.1 22.8
Drinking behavior No 1646 36.6 0.614 33.4 0.661 33.8 0.441 34 <0.001 30.9 <0.001 27.7 0.527
Yes 752 35.5 32.4 32.2 41 21.9 26.5
Smoking behavior Never smoked 1735 36.7 0.788 32 0.226 31.9 <0.001 33.8 <0.001 30.5 <0.001 26.5 0.332
Former smoker 83 34.9 36.1 55.4 38.6 19.3 31.3
Current smoker 580 35.2 35.7 34.1 42.9 22.1 29.1
BMI <18.5 kg/m2 116 2.6 <0.001 17.2 <0.001 15.5 <0.001 9.5 <0.001 17.2 <0.001 2.6 <0.001
18.5~ 24.0 kg/m2 1221 14.2 26.9 25.6 28.3 23.8 14.9
24.0~ 28.0 kg/m2 779 56.6 38.5 41.1 45.7 30.8 37.7
≥28.0 kg/m2 264 92.8 53 52.7 55.7 44.7 64.8
Physical activitya Sedentary group 1132 43.3 <0.001 38.3 <0.001 42.8 <0.001 38.1 0.356 29.2 0.225 33.9 <0.001
T1 463 31.3 29.8 30.9 34.8 27.6 24.4
T2 544 28.5 27.6 20.6 34.4 28.7 20.4
T3 258 30.6 27.9 22.9 34.5 22.9 18.2
Energy intakeb Q1 691 35.6 0.442 34.6 0.622 37.5 0.023 34.7 0.152 30 0.093 28.7 0.752
Q2 678 37.5 32 33.3 35.3 28.6 26.5
Q3 580 34 33.8 29.8 40.2 29 27.6
Q4 449 38.3 31.4 31.2 34.7 23.4 26.1
HFD-indexc Q1 479 40.3 0.013 36.1 0.141 31.9 0.668 39.2 0.265 25.9 0.275 28.8 0.046
Q2 519 39.5 35.3 35.1 37.6 27.6 30.3
Q3 579 35.1 31.8 34 35.2 31.1 28.3
Q4 821 32.6 30.8 32.4 34.2 27.6 23.9
  1. Note:aSubjects who only reported sedentary behaviors were classified as Sedentary group, the others were trisected into three groups (T1, T2 and T3) according to the calculated metabolic equivalents (MET)/d from the smallest to the highest;
  2. bEnergy intakes were quadrisected into four groups (Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4) from the smallest to the highest;
  3. cChinese HFD-Index values were quadrisected into four groups (Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4) from the smallest to the highest