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Table 3 General characteristics of participants and the distribution of MetS and its components of CUADHS

From: Using an introduced index to assess the association between food diversity and metabolic syndrome and its components in Chinese adults

Factor Group N Elevated WC Elevated fasting glucose Elevated blood pressure Elevated TC Reduced HDL MetS
% P % P % P % P % P % P
Total 1520,100 35.3   32.9   37   40.9   43.6   36.4  
Gender Male 527,34.7 41.2 <0.001 41.7 <0.001 46.1 <0.001 47.2 <0.001 42.5 0.548 43.5 <0.001
Female 993,65.3 32.1 28.2 32.2 37.5 44.1 32.7
Age 18~ 44.9 years 547,36 17.6 <0.001 13.7 <0.001 9.7 <0.001 20.8 <0.001 30.2 <0.001 14.6 <0.001
45~ 54.9 years 260,17.1 36.2 24.6 26.9 40 43.5 29.2
55~ 64.9 years 272,17.9 48.2 46 55.5 56.6 56.3 52.6
≥65 years 441,29.0 48.8 53.5 65.5 56.5 52.4 57.8
Educational attainment Illiterate 66,4.3 63.6 <0.001 47 <0.001 69.7 <0.001 62.1 <0.001 60.6 <0.001 69.7 <0.001
Middle school or lower 445,29.3 46.5 45.4 51.9 49.4 47.4 46.3
High school or professional training education 627,41.3 32.7 28.4 32.4 40.4 46.1 34
Undergraduate education or higher 378,24.9 21.2 23 21.2 28.3 32.3 23
Drinking behavior No 942,68.5 36.3 0.427 34.9 0.594 41.3 0.027 44.8 0.188 45.8 0.315 39.7 0.212
Yes 434,31.5 34.1 36.4 35 41 42.9 36.2
Smoking behavior Never smoked 1145,75.3 32.3 <0.001 30.2 <0.001 34.4 <0.001 38.4 0.002 42.4 0.066 33.1 <0.001
Former smoker 165,10.9 46.1 46.7 53.3 44.8 42.4 46.1
Current smoker 210,13.8 42.9 36.7 38.6 51 51 47.1
BMI <18.5 kg/m2 74,4.9 0 <0.001 9.5 <0.001 5.4 <0.001 4.1 <ss0.001 12.2 <0.001 4.1 <0.001
18.5~ 24.0 kg/m2 739,48.6 7 26 26.9 29.8 33 18.3
24.0~ 28.0 kg/m2 538,35.4 60.8 41.4 48.1 53.9 56.1 53.9
≥28.0 kg/m2 168,11.1 92.9 46.4 60.1 64.3 63.7 75
Physical activity Sedentary group 119,7.8 38.7 0.095 33.6 0.008 32.8 0.001 45.4 0.132 50.4 0.169 40.3 0.092
T1 468,30.8 30.8 28.6 31 36.5 41 31.8
T2 466,30.7 36.3 31.1 38 42.7 45.9 38.6
T3 467,30.7 37.9 38.8 43.3 42.2 42 37.9
Energy intake Q1 380,25.0 35.8 0.964 30.3 0.121 35.3 0.647 37.6 0.485 41.3 0.71 33.7 0.639
Q2 380,25.0 35.8 35.5 35.8 41.8 44.5 37.1
Q3 380,25.0 34.2 29.7 37.9 42.9 45.3 37.4
Q4 380,25.0 35.3 36.1 39.2 41.1 43.2 37.6
HFD-index Q1 368,24.2 33.2 0.764 29.9 0.166 36.1 0.295 38.6 0.196 37.5 0.014 35.3 0.035
Q2 410,27.0 36.6 36.8 39 41.2 46.1 37.1
Q3 368,24.2 35.1 27.4 33.4 38.3 41.8 31.5
Q4 374,24.6 36.1 36.9 39.3 45.2 48.4 41.7
  1. Note: aSubjects who only reported sedentary behaviors were classified as Sedentary group, the others were trisected into three groups (T1, T2 and T3) according to the calculated metabolic equivalents (MET)/d from the smallest to the highest;
  2. bEnergy intakes were quadrisected into four groups (Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4) from the smallest to the highest;
  3. cChinese HFD-Index values were quadrisected into four groups (Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4) from the smallest to the highest