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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by final diagnosis of index event – all patients with cost data

From: Predictors of high-cost hospitalization in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome in Asia: findings from EPICOR Asia

  STEMI (n = 5478) NSTEMI (n = 2030) UA (n = 3311) Total (n = 10,819)
Age, mean (SD) 58.5 (11.7) 61.9 (11.95) 61.4 (10.44) 60.0 (11.48)
Male, n (%) 4532 (82.7) 1520 (74.9) 2247 (67.9) 8299 (76.7)
Smoker, n (%)
 Current 2197 (40.1) 649 (32.0) 742 (22.4) 3588 (33.2)
 Former 964 (17.6) 398 (19.6) 775 (23.4) 2137 (19.8)
 Never 1896 (34.6) 855 (42.1) 1602 (48.4) 4353 (40.2)
 Unknown 421 (7.7) 128 (6.3) 192 (5.8) 741 (6.8)
Income, n (%)
 Quintile 1 14 (0.3) 21 (1.0) 18 (0.5) 53 (0.5)
 Quintile 2 2352 (42.9) 849 (41.8) 1342 (40.5) 4543 (42.0)
 Quintile 3 1253 (22.9) 471 (23.2) 965 (29.1) 2689 (24.9)
 Quintile 4 70 (1.3) 61 (3.0) 31 (0.9) 162 (1.5)
 Quintile 5 1271 (23.2) 463 (22.8) 805 (24.3) 2539 (23.5)
Country, n (%)
 China 3716 (67.8) 1234 (60.8) 2754 (83.2) 7704 (71.2)
 Hong Kong 75 (1.4) 45 (2.2) 5 (0.2) 125 (1.2)
 India 1341 (24.5) 527 (26.0) 415 (12.5) 2283 (21.1)
 Singapore 25 (0.5) 36 (1.8) 4 (0.1) 65 (0.6)
 South Korea 101 (1.8) 70 (3.4) 76 (2.3) 247 (2.3)
 Thailand 124 (2.3) 81 (4.0) 30 (0.9) 235 (2.2)
 Vietnam 96 (1.8) 37 (1.8) 27 (0.8) 160 (1.5)
Place of residence, n (%)
 Rural 2088 (38.1) 624 (30.7) 1067 (32.2) 3779 (34.9)
 Metropolitan 3390 (61.9) 1406 (69.3) 2244 (67.8) 7040 (65.1)
Insurance status, n (%)
 Yes 4396 (80.2) 1620 (79.8) 2950 (89.1) 8966 (82.9)
 No 1082 (19.8) 410 (20.2) 361 (10.9) 1853 (17.1)
Disease history, n (%) 1008 (18.4) 630 (31.0) 1437 (43.4) 3075 (28.4)
 Myocardial infarction 354 (6.5) 247 (12.2) 421 (12.7) 1022 (9.4)
 Prior PCI 201 (3.7) 173 (8.5) 455 (13.7) 829 (7.7)
 Prior CABG 43 (0.8) 39 (1.9) 70 (2.1) 152 (1.4)
 CAG diagnostic for CAD 233 (4.3) 216 (10.6) 606 (18.3) 1055 (9.8)
 Chronic angina 484 (8.8) 299 (14.7) 1018 (30.7) 1801 (16.6)
 Heart failure 63 (1.2) 71 (3.5) 135 (4.1) 269 (2.5)
 Atrial fibrillation 47 (0.9) 45 (2.2) 62 (1.9) 154 (1.4)
 TIA/stroke 212 (3.9) 101 (5.0) 166 (5.0) 479 (4.4)
 Peripheral vascular disease 24 (0.4) 24 (1.2) 41 (1.2) 89 (0.8)
 Chronic renal failure 59 (1.1) 70 (3.4) 38 (1.1) 166 (1.5)
Hospitalization in 3 months prior to index event, n (%) 206 (3.8) 126 (6.2) 458 (13.8) 790 (7.3)
Dependence degree (need of help for daily activities) prior to index event, n (%)
 Some dependence 715 (13.1) 318 (15.7) 367 (11.1) 1400 (12.9)
 No dependence 4601 (84.0) 1659 (81.7) 2826 (85.4) 9086 (84.0)
 Unknown 162 (3.0) 53 (2.6) 118 (3.6) 333 (3.1)
Index event medical management, n (%)
 Invasive 4713 (86.0) 1598 (78.7) 2612 (78.9) 8923 (82.5)
 Non-invasive 724 (13.2) 422 (20.8) 617 (18.6) 1763 (16.3)
 Unknown 41 (0.7) 10 (0.5) 82 (2.5) 133 (1.2)
Type of hospital, n (%)
 Regional/community/rural hospital 296 (5.4) 111 (5.5) 76 (2.3) 483 (4.5)
 Non-university general hospital 1269 (23.2) 368 (18.1) 792 (23.9) 2429 (22.5)
 University general hospital 2931 (53.5) 1074 (52.9) 2092 (63.2) 6097 (56.4)
 Other type of hospital/clinic 982 (17.9) 477 (23.5) 351 (10.6) 1810 (16.7)
Number of beds, mean (95% CI) 1307.1 (1280.0, 1334.2) 1223.1 (1181.9, 1264.3) 1374.5 (1338.6, 1410.5) 1311.9 (1292.7, 1331.2)
Length of stay, mean (95% CI) 10.3 (10.2, 10.5) 10.2 (9.9, 10.6) 9.8 (9.6, 10.0) 10.1 (10.0, 10.3)
  1. CABG Coronary artery bypass graft, CAD Coronary artery disease, CAG Coronary angiogram, CI Confidence interval, NSTEMI Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, PCI Percutaneous coronary intervention, STEMI ST-elevation myocardial infarction, TIA Transient ischemic attack, UA Unstable angina