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Table 1 The association of incident CHF with neck circumference according to AHI categories

From: The association of neck circumference with incident congestive heart failure and coronary heart disease mortality in a community-based population with or without sleep-disordered breathing

  Quartiles of neck circumference  
Q1 (low) Q2 Q3 Q4 (high) Overall tendency
AHI < 5#
 Subjects, n 805 655 491 283  
 Events, n (%) 39 (4.8) 45 (6.9) 49 (10.0) 30 (10.6)  
 Univariate Model 1 (Ref) 1.457 (0.949–2.238) 2.197 (1.443–3.346) 2.341 (1.455–3.769) 1.095 (1.054–1.137)
 Multivariate Model 1 1 (Ref) 0.997 (0.630–1.577) 1.738 (0.982–3.077) 2.265 (1.074–4.777) 1.111 (1.034–1.194)
 Multivariate Model 2 1 (Ref) 0.891 (0.561–1.415) 1.386 (0.780–2.463) 1.762 (0.850–3.650) 1.080 (1.008–1.157)
 Multivariate Model 3 1 (Ref) 0.844 (0.522–1.364) 1.419 (0.778–2.589) 1.668 (0.765–3.638) 1.082 (1.003–1.166)
AHI ≥ 5*
 Subjects, n 304 455 681 759  
 Events, n (%) 31(10.2) 51(11.2) 83(12.2) 86(11.3)  
 Univariate Model 1 (Ref) 1.086 (0.695–1.697) 1.196 (0.792–1.807) 1.107 (0.734–1.669) 1.004 (0.974–1.035)
 Multivariate Model 1 1 (Ref) 1.051 (0.662–1.670) 1.065 (0.646–1.757) 1.107 (0.600–2.041) 0.999 (0.948–1.054)
 Multivariate Model 2 1 (Ref) 0.972 (0.609–1.550) 0.969 (0.587–1.599) 0.995 (0.544–1.820) 0.996 (0.947–1.049)
 Multivariate Model 3 1 (Ref) 0.870 (0.533–1.418) 0.807 (0.480–1.357) 0.690 (0.364–1.309) 0.965 (0.912–1.022)
  1. Model 1 adjusted for age, gender, and BMI
  2. Model 2 adjusted for age, gender, BMI, and waist circumference
  3. Model 3 adjusted for age, gender, BMI, waist circumference, AHI, smoking status, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, history of diabetes, and history of hypertension
  4. Results are presented as hazard ratio (95% confidence interval). CHF congestive heart failure, AHI apnoea-hypopnea index (the average number of episodes of apnoea and/or hypopnea per hour of sleep), BMI body mass index
  5. #P value for the overall tendency of neck circumference modelled as a continuous variable was <0.001, 0.004, 0.029, 0.040 in the univariate model, multivariate model 1, model 2, and model 3, respectively
  6. *P value for the overall tendency of neck circumference modelled as a continuous variable was 0.809, 0.978, 0.893, and 0.225 in univariate model, multivariate model 1, model 2, and model 3, respectively