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Table 3 Dynamic mitral valve characteristics in systole

From: Systolic characteristics and dynamic changes of the mitral valve in different grades of ischemic mitral regurgitation – insights from 3D transesophageal echocardiography

MV Parameters End-diastole Mid-systole End-systole
normal mMR sMR normal mMR sMR normal mMR sMR
AP diameter (cm) 2.60s ± 0.48 2.56 ± 0.48 3.18 ± 0.49a,b 2.75 ± 0.46c 2.75 ± 0.42c 3.25 ± 0.49a,b,c 2.78 ± 0.47 2.69 ± 0.41 3.33 ± 0.50a,b,d
AL-PM diameter (cm) 3.16 ± 0.50 3.21 ± 0.50 3.78 ± 0.62a,b 3.23 ± 0.49c 3.28 ± 0.46c 3.81 ± 0.61a,b,c 3.25 ± 0.49d 3.29 ± 0.47 3.83 ± 0.60a,b,d
Intercommissural diameter (cm) 3.11 ± 0.49 3.18 ± 0.49 3.72 ± 0.66a,b 3.18 ± 0.64c 3.25 ± 0.45c 3.72 ± 0.65a,b 3.20 ± 0.48d 3.26 ± 0.45 3.77 ± 0.64a,b,d
Annulus circumference (cm) 9.85 ± 1.54 9.59 ± 1.47 11.69 ± 1.99a,b 10.14 ± 1.47c 9.81 ± 1.29c 11.75 ± 1.92a,b 10.19 ± 1.49 9.85 ± 1.29 11.86 ± 1.94a,b,d
Annulus area 3D (cm2) 7.23 ± 2.29 6.95 ± 2.11 10.40 ± 3.72a,b 7.71 ± 2.23c 7.27 ± 1.91c 10.56 ± 3.67a,b 7.82 ± 2.27 7.36 ± 1.91 10.82 ± 3.73a,b,d
Anterior leaflet area (cm2) 4.65 ± 1.29 4.69 ± 1.56 7.23 ± 2.79a,b 4.82 ± 1.32c 4.75 ± 1.43 7.21 ± 2.78a,b 5.00 ± 1.44d 4.85 ± 1.42 7.44 ± 2.91a,b,d
Posterior leaflet area (cm2) 3.78 ± 1.65 3.51 ± 1.33 5.36 ± 0.82 a,b 3.66 ± 1.51 3.40 ± 1.24 4.88 ± 1.94 a,b,c 3.79 ± 1.53 3.46 ± 1.22 5.01 ± 2.15a,b
Non planar angle (°) 143 ± 11 155 ± 10a 157 ± 10a 143 ± 11 154 ± 11a 157 ± 10a 144 ± 11d 155 ± 11a,d 160 ± 9a,d
Tenting volume (cm3) 1.62 ± 0.96 1.82 ± 1.03 3.78 ± 2.13a,b 1.05 ± 0.89c 1.42 ± 0.82c 2.98 ± 1.76a,b,c 1.33 ± 1.12 1.50 ± 0.82 3.30 ± 2.15a,b
Tenting height (mm) 6.86 ± 2.17 6.39 ± 1.75 9.28 ± 2.10a,b 5.26 ± 1.80c 5.42 ± 1.82c 7.74 ± 2.25a,b,c 5.68 ± 2.14 5.39 ± 1.41 7.80 ± 2.56a,b
  1. AP anterior-posterior, AL-PM anterolateral-posteromedial, mMR mild mitral regurgitation, sMR significant mitral regurgitation, 3D three dimensional
  2. aSignificant difference compared to normal in the same phase of cardiac cycle (p < 0.05)
  3. bSignificant difference compared to mild MR in the same phase of cardiac cycle (p < 0.05)
  4. cSignificant difference compared to end-diastolic value in the same patient group (p < 0.05)
  5. dSignificant difference compared to mid-systolic value in the same patient group (p < 0.05)