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Table 5 Predictors of increasing costs

From: Cost-of-illness studies in heart failure: a systematic review 2004–2016

Reference Predictors of increasing costs (x times higher costs)
Stafylas, 2016 • NYHA stage
• Kidney dysfunction
Lee, 2016 [31] • Age > = 65 (1.6)
• Number of hospitalizations (9.7 for one hospitalization)
Bogner, 2010 [24] • Diabetes mellitus (0.4)
Dunlay, 2011 [34] • Diabetes mellitus (0.25)
• Ejection fraction > = 50 (0.24)
Liao, 2006 [25] • NYHA stage (NYHA 4–0.77, NYHA 3–0.12)
• Kidney dysfunction (creatinine > = 1.4 mg/dl – 0.48)
• Coronary artery disease (0.32)
• COPD (0.38)
• Hypertension (0.27)
Liao, 2007 [23] • NYHA stage (NYHA 3/4–0.41)
• Coronary artery disease (0.66)
• Kidney dysfunction (0.13)
• COPD (0.44)
Delgado, 2013 • NYHA stage (NYHA 3/4: 0.6–0.8 times higher costs than NYHA 2)