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Table 4 Summary of cost estimates (studies with an incident and mixed approach are underlined)

From: Cost-of-illness studies in heart failure: a systematic review 2004–2016

Reference Year of cost data Country Reported annual costs in local currency (costs per patient) Local currency in 2016 $US (2016 PPP) % of inpatient costs of all direct costs Expenditure on health, per capita, US$ (2016 PPP)
Voigt, 2014 [35] 2012 USA $60.2 - $115.4ba(direct costs)
$70.8 - $127.0ba(total costs)
$62.9 - $120.7ba
$74.0 - $133.0ba
62.9–120.7ba
74.0–133.0ba
66 9892
Czech, 2013 [36] 2010 Poland 7739 PLN 8312 PLN 4755 92e 1798
Delgado, 2013 2010 Spain 4860€ (healthcare costs) 5166€ 7792 58e 3248
Bogner, 2010 [24] 2009 USA 22,230$b 24,873$b 24,873b 84 9892
Zugck, 2010 [30] 2002 Germany 11,794–16,303 €c 14,297–19,762 €c 18,472–25,532c 72 5551
Neumann, 2009 [29] 2006 Germany 2.879b €a 3.293b €a 4.255ba 60 5551
Liao, 2007 [23] 2006 USA $10,832 12,907$ 12,907 65e 9892
Agvall, 2005 [28] 2000 Sweden 37,060 SEK 44,971 SEK 5044 47 5488
Stafylas, 2016 2014 Greece 4411 € 4295 € 7053 73e 2223
Ogah, 2014 [32] 2010 Nigeria 2128$ 2343$ 2343 44 NA
Lee, 2016 [31] 2016 South Korea 868$ (perspective of third-party-payer)
1414$ (perspective of society)
868$
1414$
868
1414
53 NA
Dunlay, 2011 [34] 2007 USA 109.541$ (lifetime costs from HF diagnosis until death) 126.819$ 126.819 77 9892
Corrao, 2014 [33] 2011 Italy 11,100 € 11,597 € 15,952 92e 3391
Liao, 2006 [25] 2000 USA 32,580–33,023$ (prevalent group)d
45,604–49,128$ (incident group)d
45,406–46,023$d
63,557–68,468$d
45,406–46,023d
63,557–68,468d
65–67
70–72
9892
Ory, 2005 [26] 2000 USA 14,465$ (prevalent group)
17,744$ (incident group)
20,159$
24,729$
20,159
24,729
NA 9892
Murphy, 2016 2013 Ireland 12,206 € (patients with preserved EF)
13,011 € (patients with reduced EF)
12,194 €
12,999 €
15,334
16,330
92e
96e
5528
  1. aAggregated costs for all HF patients
  2. bCosts aggregated for two years
  3. cCosts depend on number of visits to doctors
  4. dCumulated costs for 5 years
  5. enot clearly stated in the study
  6. SEK Swedish kronas, PLN Polish Zloty, b Billions, EF ejection fraction