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Table 3 Summary of the cost components (studies with an incident and mixed approach are underlined)

From: Cost-of-illness studies in heart failure: a systematic review 2004–2016

Cost components (37) (29) (36) (35) (28) (23) (24) (30) (38) (31) (32) (27) (34) (33) (26) (25)
Direct costs
Inpatient care  
 Medication           
 Laboratory                 
 Physicians                 
 Intensive care units                 
 Nursing home              
Outpatient care  
 Hospital Outpatient care                
 Physicians           
 Specialist                
 Home care                
 Medication        
 Laboratory /Procedures                
 Paramedical staff                
 Medical transport              
Indirect costs                
Informal care costs