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Table 2 Main data sources and definition of HF in the included studies

From: Cost-of-illness studies in heart failure: a systematic review 2004–2016

Study Main data sources Definition of HF
Voigt, 2014 [35] Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)
National Association for Home Care & Hospice (NAHC)
National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS)
National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS)
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)
ICD-9 (428.x, 402.01, 402.11, 402.91, 398.91, 404.01, 404.11, 404.91, 416.9, 425.4, 518.4, 786)
Corrao, 2014 [33] Italian National Health System (NHS) database from Lombardy ICD-9 (428, 402.01, 402.11, 402.91)
Czech, 2013 [36] Medical data from randomly selected outpatient units and inpatient facilities linked with patient interview data (POLKARD study)
Delgado, 2013 Medical records from specialized cardiology clinics, questionnaires and interviews (patients and caregivers) Symptomatic patients (NYHA II-IV) with a diagnosis of HF at least 6 months previously
Dunlay, 2011 [34] Medical records and billing data from Olmsted County Healthcare Expenditure and Utilization Database (OCHEUD), a population-based database in Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA ICD-9 (428)
Bogner, 2010 [24] Administrative database of a large urban academic health care system
Medicare claims database
ICD-9 (428.0, 428.1, 428.9, 402.01, 402.11, 402.91)
Zugck, 2010 [30] Database of the public health insurance, cohort selected by randomly prescribed date of birth
Federal Office of Statistics, Germany
ICD-10 (I50)
Neumann, 2009 [29] Federal Office of Statistics, Germany ICD-10 (I50)
Liao, 2007 [23]
Liao, 2006 [25]
Cardiovascular Health Study (prospective, community-based, observational study)
Medicare linked files
Hospitalization for HF or self-report of a physician diagnosis of HF
Agvall, 2005 [28] Hospital records from two healthcare centers
Swedish National Medical Agency price list
ICD-10 (I50)
Ory, 2005 [26] Longitudinal database of Prescription Solutions,
a pharmacy benefit and medical management organization
ICD-9 (398.91, 402.01, 402.11, 402.91, 404.01, 404.03, 404.11, 404.91)
Stafylas, 2016 EURObservational Research Programme: The Heart Failure Pilot Survey (ESC-HF Pilot)
EOPYY- Greek National Organization for Health Care Provision
Hospitalization for HF or HF diagnosis according to clinical judgement of the responsible cardiologist
Lee, 2016 [31] Claims data from the National Health Insurance (NHI)
Claims data from Medical Aid (MA)
ICD-10 (I11.0, I13.0, I13.2, I50.x)
Murphy, 2016 National Casemix Program, patient interviews, hospital records ICD-10
Ogah, 2014 [32] Abeokuta HF registry (hospital registry), patient interviews ICD-10