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Table 1 Demographic, clinical, and echocardiographic characteristics of study participants stratified by gender

From: Gender-specific contribution of cardiometabolic index and lipid accumulation product to left ventricular geometry change in general population of rural China

Variable Total (N = 11,258) Female (N = 6079) Male (N = 5179) P value*
Age (years) 53.86 ± 10.54 53.39 ± 10.32 54.42 ± 10.78 < 0.001
Race (Han) (%) 10,681 (94.9) 5769 (94.9) 4912 (94.8) 0.893
Primary school or below (%) 5629 (50.0) 3459 (56.9) 2710 (41.9) < 0.001
Family income > 20,000 CNY/year (%) 3709 (32.9) 2014 (33.1) 1695 (32.7) 0.008
Low physical activity (%) 3336 (29.6) 2171 (35.7) 1165 (22.5) < 0.001
Diet score 2.32 ± 1.13 2.13 ± 1.11 2.54 ± 1.10 < 0.001
Current smoker (%) 3959 (35.2) 996 (16.4) 2963 (57.2) < 0.001
Current drinker (%) 2523 (22.4) 177 (2.9) 2346 (45.3) < 0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 141.69 ± 23.40 140.09 ± 24.02 143.57 ± 22.51 < 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 82.04 ± 11.75 80.57 ± 11.53 83.76 ± 11.78 < 0.001
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 5.91 ± 1.63 5.87 ± 1.61 5.95 ± 1.67 0.007
TG (mmol/L) 1.24 (0.88–1.89) 1.26 (0.90–1.91) 1.23 (0.86–1.88) 0.017
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.41 ± 0.38 1.41 ± 0.34 1.41 ± 0.42 0.717
TG/HDL-C ratio 0.92 (0.59–1.54) 0.93 (0.60–1.53) 0.91 (0.58–1.57) 0.566
WC (cm) 82.43 ± 9.82 81.29 ± 9.73 83.76 ± 9.76 < 0.001
Height (m) 1.61 ± 0.08 1.56 ± 0.06 1.66 ± 0.06 < 0.001
WHtR 0.51 ± 0.06 0.50 ± 0.06 0.52 ± 0.06 < 0.001
Hypertension (%) 5738 (51.0) 2949 (48.5) 2789 (53.9) < 0.001
Diabetes (%) 1175 (10.4) 662 (10.9) 513 (9.9) 0.089
Antihypertensive drug (%)a 1701 (15.1) 1034 (17.0) 667 (12.9) < 0.001
Antidiabetic drug (%)a 449 (4.0) 294 (4.8) 155 (3.0) < 0.001
Lipid-lowering drug (%)a 371 (3.3) 211 (3.5) 160 (3.1) 0.258
History of CVD
 Coronary heart disease (%) 580 (5.2) 363 (6.0) 217 (4.2) < 0.001
 Arrhythmia (%) 617 (5.5) 421 (6.9) 196 (3.8) < 0.001
 Heart failure (%) 104 (0.9) 58 (1.0) 46 (0.9) 0.716
 CMI 0.47 (0.29–0.82) 0.48 (0.30–0.83) 0.46 (0.27–0.82) 0.002
 LAP (cm·mmol/L) 25.44 (13.39–47.38) 28.31 (16.17–50.95) 21.95 (10.71–43.60) < 0.001
ECG measures
 LVIDD (cm) 4.74 ± 0.46 4.54 ± 0.41 4.89 ± 0.45 < 0.001
 IVST (cm) 0.89 ± 0.28 0.86 ± 0.26 0.92 ± 0.30 < 0.001
 PWT (cm) 0.87 ± 0.31 0.85 ± 0.33 0.90 ± 0.29 < 0.001
 LVWT (cm) 2.79 ± 0.28 2.69 ± 0.25 2.90 ± 0.27 < 0.001
 RWT 0.38 ± 0.33 0.39 ± 0.41 0.37 ± 0.20 0.050
 LVM (g) 132.32 (113.63–158.21) 122.26 (105.33–137.72) 147.78 (128.02–174.52) < 0.001
 LVMI (g/m2.7) 36.99 (31.98–43.43) 36.69 (31.52–42.84) 37.40 (32.46–44.13) < 0.001
 LVEDV (ml) 104.17 ± 22.95 95.87 ± 19.17 113.94 ± 23.18 < 0.001
 LVESV (ml) 39.45 ± 13.60 36.16 ± 11.68 43.34 ± 14.64 < 0.001
 LVEDVI (ml/m2.7) 29.07 ± 6.35 29.18 ± 6.29 28.93 ± 6.42 0.037
 LVESVI (ml/m2.7) 11.01 ± 3.76 11.00 ± 3.65 11.01 ± 3.88 0.902
 LV ejection fraction (%) 62.05 ± 10.02 62.22 ± 9.76 61.85 ± 10.31 0.048
 Normal geometry 8780 (78.0) 4656 (76.6) 4124 (79.6) < 0.001
 Concentric LV remodeling 792 (7.0) 466 (7.7) 326 (6.3) 0.005
 Eccentric LVH 1185 (10.5) 689 (11.3) 496 (9.6) 0.002
 Concentric LVH 501 (4.5) 268 (4.4) 233 (4.5) 0.817
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range) and numbers (percentage) as appropriate. CNY China Yuan (1CNY = 0.158 USD), TG triglyceride, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, WHtR waist-to-height ratio, CVD cardiovascular disease, CMI cardiometabolic index, LAP lipid accumulation product, LV left ventricular, IVST interventricular septal thickness, LVIDD left ventricular end-diastolic internal dimension, PWT posterior wall thickness, LVWT, LV wall thickness, RWT, relative wall thickness, LVM left ventricular mass, LVMI left ventricular mass index, LVEDV left ventricular end-diastolic volume, LVESV left ventricular end-systolic volume LVEDVI, left ventricular end-diastolic volume index, LVESVI left ventricular end-systolic volume index, ECG echocardiogram, LVH left ventricular hypertrophy
  2. * P values are for a Student’s t or Mann-Whitney test (continuous) and chi-square test (categorical) comparison across left ventricular geometry
  3. a At least one, versus no