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Table 1 List of aims and hypothesis for the study

From: Study protocol, randomized controlled trial: reducing symptom burden in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction using ubiquinol and/or D-ribose

AIM 1: To determine the effects of oral ubiquinol, D-ribose, or a combination of the two administered over 12 weeks on symptoms accompanying low bioenergetics in patients with HFpEF.
 Hypothesis #1: Ubiquinol (600 mg daily), D-ribose (15 g daily), or a combination of the two will enhance the health status of patients with HFpEF as measured by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire.
 Hypothesis #2: Ubiquinol (600 mg daily), D-ribose (15 g daily), or a combination of the two will increase the level of vigor in patients with HFpEF as measured by the Vigor subscale of the Profile of Mood States.
AIM 2: To determine the effects of oral ubiquinol, D-ribose, or a combination of the two over 12 weeks on biological measures in patients with HFpEF.
 Hypothesis #3: Ubiquinol (600 mg daily), D-ribose (15 g daily), or a combination of the two will improve left ventricular diastolic function measured by advanced echocardiographic imaging in patients with HFpEF.
 Hypothesis #4: Ubiquinol (600 mg daily), D-ribose (15 g daily), or a combination of the two will increase the distance that patients with HFpEF can walk in 6 min.
 Hypothesis #5: Ubiquinol (600 mg daily), D-ribose (15 g daily), or a combination of the two will decrease venous blood B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with HFpEF.
 Hypothesis #6: Ubiquinol (600 mg daily), D-ribose (15 g daily), or a combination of the two will decrease the lactate/ATP ratio in patients with HFpEF.