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Table 1 Baseline Demographics, Pulse Wave Velocity and Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Parameters

From: Epicardial adipose tissue is related to arterial stiffness and inflammation in patients with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes

Variable Group 1 CVD and DM (n = 34) Group 2 No CVD with DM (n = 54) Group 3 CVD without DM (n = 28) Group 4 No CVD or DM (n = 29) p value
Male 28 (82.4)* o 29 (53.7) 20 (71.4) 12 (41.4) 0.003
Age (years) 64.6 ± 6.6 62.4 ± 8.1+ 67.6 ± 8.6 62.1 ± 8.0 0.022
BMI (kg/m2) 31.0 ± 4.2* 31.0 ± 4.6* 29.2 ± 3.6 27.9 ± 3.7 0.007
Diabetes duration (years) 10.3 ± 4.8 9.0 ± 6.2 N/A N/A 0.33
Current/Ex-smoker 25 (73.5) 27 (50.0) 16 (57.1) 15 (51.7) 0.16
Hypertension 27 (79.4)* 34 (63.0)* 24 (85.7)* 7 (24.1) < 0.001
Stroke 5 (14.7)*o 0 (0) 2 (7.1) 0 (0) 0.008
LEAD 9 (26.5)* o 0 (0) 5 (17.9) o 0 (0) < 0.001
CAD 25 (73.5)* 0 (0) 22 (78.6)*o 0 (0) 0.001
Atrial Fibrillation 1 (2.9) 1 (1.9) 1 (3.6) 2 (6.9) 0.69
ACE Inhibitor 21 (61.8)*o 17 (30.4) 15 (53.6)* 3 (10.3) < 0.001
Beta Blocker 15 (44.1)*o 6 (11.1) 12 (42.9)*o 1 (3.4) < 0.001
Statin 30 (88.2)* 39 (72.2)* 22 (78.6)* 7 (24.1) < 0.001
Systolic BP (mmHg) 126.3 ± 12.5 134.0 ± 14.2 130.7 ± 13.6 132.7 ± 19.1 0.13
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 73.2 ± 7.1*o 78.0 ± 7.4 75.5 ± 8.5 81.0 ± 9.0 0.001
Total Cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.7 ± 0.8* 4.0 ± 0.8* 4.0 ± 0.7* 5.1 ± 0.9 < 0.001
LDL Cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.7 ± 0.5* 2.0 ± 0.8* 2.0 ± 0.6* 2.8 ± 0.8 < 0.001
HDL Cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.1 ± 0.3* 1.3 ± 0.3* 1.3 ± 0.5 1.5 ± 0.4 < 0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 2.1 ± 1.0+ 1.7 ± 0.8 1.5 ± 0.8 1.7 ± 1.0 0.06
Serum Creatinine (μmol/l) 84.4 ± 22.6*o 73.3 ± 17.3 82.5 ± 19.1 70.6 ± 15.3 0.006
HbA1c (mmol/l) 7.5 ± 1.1*+ 7.2 ± 1.1*+ 5.5 ± 0.2 5.6 ± 0.2 < 0.001
PWV (m/s) 11.4 ± 3.0 11.1 ± 2.7 11.1 ± 2.4 9.9 ± 2.4 0.12
EAT (cm2) 15.9 ± 5.5* 13.5 ± 3.5 15.1 ± 4.3* 11.8 ± 4.1 0.001
LVMI (g/m2) 61.7 ± 9.8* 55.5 ± 10.6 59.8 ± 10.0* 52.5 ± 8.4 0.001
LVEF (%) 64.6 ± 10.5 65.9 ± 8.9 64.6 ± 10.6 66.0 ± 7.4 0.86
LVEDVI (ml/m2) 70.6 ± 12.4 67.0 ± 12.9+ 75.5 ± 20.4 68.7 ± 9.9 0.07
LVESVI (ml/m2) 25.4 ± 9.8 23.2 ± 9.0 28.0 ± 16.4 23.5 ± 6.7 0.24
LGE (%) 9 (26.5) 3 (5.6) 11 (39.3) 0 (0) < 0.001
  1. BMI body mass index; BP blood pressure; CAD coronary artery disease, LEAD lower extremity arterial disease; ACE angiotensin converting enzyme; ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker; PWV pulse wave velocity; LVM left ventricular mass index; LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction; LVEDV left ventricular end diastolic volume; LVESV left ventricular end systolic volume; SV stroke volume; LGE late gadolinium enhancement
  2. Categorical data presented as number (percentage), continuous data presented as mean ± SD
  3. *p < 0.05 vs. group 4 (no DM or CVD); +p < 0.05 vs. group 3 (CVD without DM); op < 0.05 vs. group 2 (DM without CVD)
  4. Figures in bold p < 0.05