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Table 6 Levels of evidence and outcome measures in Heart Failure studies

From: Smartphones in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review

  Scherr, 2006 Scherr, 2009 Seto, 2012 Vuorinen 214
Country of Origin Austria Austria Canada Finland
Levels of evidence  
Design FUU RCT RCT RCT
Level of Evidence* IV II II II
CASP score** n/a 6 8 8
Theoretical framework     
Outcome measures  
Technology  
Reliability    
Feasibility    
Clinical utility    
Usability  
Acceptability   
Adherence
Usage
Task completion    
Patient  
Patient satisfaction   
Qualitative feedback   
QOL     
Self-care   
NYHA class  
LVEF
BP and HR  
Weight  
ECG     
Medication use  
Biochemistry   
BNP   
Mortality  
Health service utilization  
Economic evaluation None of these smartphone heart failure studies included a health economic analysis
  1. Key: Outcome measured, FUU Feasibility, Utility and Uptake study, RCT Randomised Control Trial, n/a Not applicable, CASP Critical Appraisal Skills Programme, QOL Quality of life, NYHA New York Heart Association, LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction, BP Blood pressure, HR Heart rate, ECG Electrocardiogram, BNP Brain Natriuretic Peptide
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