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Table 4 Summary of outcome results in cardiac rehabilitation studies

From: Smartphones in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review

  Worringham, 2011 (FUU) Forman, 2014 (FUU) Varnfield, 2011 (FUU) Blasco, 2012 (RCT) Varnfield, 2014 (RCT)
Patient numbers n = 6 26 15 102 TMG; 101CG 60 CAP; 60 TCR
Program completion 100% NR Internal feasibility study 87%
TMG: 88% (n = 90 of 102) CG: 87% (n = 88 of 101, includes 4 deaths) or 91% (n 92 of 101, excludes 4 deaths)
++
TMG: 80% (n 48 = of 60) vs CG: 47% (n = 28 of 60)
Mean age (years) 53.6 (42–67) 59 (43–76) 33% > 65 years 59 60.6 ± 1.3 TMG 61.0 ± 12.1 CG 54.9 ± 9.6 CAP 56.2 ± 10.1 TCR
Technology (reported inconsistently)
Feasibility NR   
Usability/Acceptability 4.8/5.0 Ease of use 83% positive experience Easy (qualitative data)   
Technical 80% of completed sessions had no technical problems NR 36% use of Wellness Diary Connected internet -limited by computer and internet access 42% of TMG withdrawals due to technical issues (n = 5 of 12) 7% of CAP withdrawals reported technical difficulties
Engagement/Adherence/Usage/Task completion 87% completed sessions 90% daily engagement
78% task completion
91.5% wellness diary
100% step counter
98% completed > 50% sessions
83% completed > 75% of sessions
++
(94% vs 68% adherence)
Patient
Uptake 86% of referred patient   Internal feasibility study 83.5% ++
(80% vs 62%)
Mentorship    91% motivational   
CV risk improvement     ++ (ITT)  
Physical activity     ns  
6 Minute Walk Test +     ǂ †
ns
Nutrition      ǂ †
ns
Smoking cessation     ns (ITT)  
Psychological distress      ǂ
ns
Depression +     ǂ †
ns
Anxiety      ǂ
ns
Quality of Life + − physical health
ns - mental health
(SF36)
   ++ Physical health
ns Mental health
(SF36)
ǂ
++
(EQ5D-Index)
Blood pressure (BP) and Heart rate (HR)     ++ BP (ITT)
++ SBP
≠ DBP
++ DBP
ns HR
ns SBP
Weight      ǂ
ns
Body Mass Index     ++  
Waist circumference      ǂ
ns
Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)     ++ (ITT)
++
ns
Plasma lipid level     ns LDL-c (ITT)
++ LDL-c
++ TG
† ns TC
ǂ † ≠ TG
ns LDL-c
  1. Key: FUU Feasibility, Utility and Uptake study, RCT Randomised Control Trial, TMG Telemonitoring Group, CAP Care Assessment Platform cardiac rehabilitation, TCR Traditional Cardiac Rehabilitation, CG Control Group, PROs Patient reported outcomes, CV Cardiovascular, LDL-c Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG Triglyceride
  2. FUU studies - pre- compared with post-intervention: + = significant improvement with mHealth; # = no significant improvement with mHealth; NR = not reported; = reported as feasible
  3. RCT studies: ++ = significant improvement in mHealth group compared with TCR (or CG) group; ns = no significant difference between mHealth group and TCR (or CG) group; ≠ = significant improvement in TCR (or CG) compared with mHealth group; ǂ = significant CAP within-group differences at 6 weeks; † = significant TCR within-group differences at 6 weeks; ITT = Intention to treat analysis
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