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Table 3 Levels of evidence and outcome measures in cardiac rehabilitation studies

From: Smartphones in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review

  Worringham, 2011 Forman, 2014 Varnfield, 2011 Blasco, 2012 Varnfield, 2014
Country of Origin Australia USA Australia Spain Australia
Levels of evidence
Design FUU FUU FUU RCT RCT
Level of Evidence* IV IV IV II II
CASP score n/a n/a n/a 7 8
Theoretical framework     
Outcome measures
Technology
 Feasibility  
 Usability   
 Technical problems    
 Acceptability  
 Engagement    
 Adherence
 Usage      
 Task completion      
Patient
Uptake    
PROs      
Program completion    
Qualitative feedback   
CV risk improvement      
Physical activity   
Step counter     
6MWT    
Nutrition   
Smoking status      
Psychological distress     
Depression    
Anxiety    
QOL   
Self-efficacy      
BP and HR   
Weight     
BMI    
Waist circumference     
HbA1c    
Plasma lipid level    
PVO2      
Medication adherence      
Economic evaluation     
  1. Key: Outcome measured, FUU Feasibility, Utility and Uptake study, RCT Randomised Control Trial, n/a Not applicable, CASP Critical Appraisal Skills Programme, PROs Patient reported outcomes, CV Cardiovascular, 6MWT Six minute walk test, QOL Quality of life, BP Blood pressure, HR Heart rate, BMI Body mass index, HbA1 c Haemoglobin A1c, PVO 2 Peak oxygen uptake. *National Health and Medical Research Council's (NHMRC) Evidence Hierarch [28].
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