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Table 1 Study population

From: Retinal capillary rarefaction in patients with untreated mild-moderate hypertension

  Short time hypertensive patients (n = 70) Long time hypertensive patients (n = 64) Healthy control subjects (n = 55) ANOVA results p-value
Clinical characteristics
Age (years) 52 ± 9.3 51 ± 13 53 ± 13 p = 0.585
BMI (kg/m2) 28.3 (25–31) 27.8 (26–30) 25.3 (23–29) p = 0.011
Sex (male/female) 46/24 53/11 19/36 p < 0.001
Systolic Office BP (mmHg) 146 ± 12 147 ± 11 124 ± 12 p < 0.001
Diastolic Office BP (mmHg) 90 ± 8.6 89 ± 9.1 79 ± 9.1 p < 0.001
HR (bpm) 73 ± 8.6 73 ± 7.9 70 ± 13 p = 0.739
Systolic 24 h Ambulatory BP (mmHg) 142 ± 10.2 148 ± 9.7 120 ± 9.6 p < 0.001
Diastolic 24 h Ambulatory BP (mmHg) 89 ± 9.4 92 ± 9.9 75 ± 4.1 p < 0.001
Serum creatinine (mmol/L) 0.077 ± 0.02 0.080 ± 0.01 0.073 ± 0.02 p = 0.013
Cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.75 ± 0.98 5.57 ± 0.98 6.16 ± 1.19 p < 0.001
LDL (mmol/L) 3.89 ± 0.96 3.76 ± 0.98 4.04 ± 0.93 p = 0.138
HDL (mmol/L) 1.39 ± 0.33 1.29 ± 0.27 1.63 ± 0.34 p < 0.001
Plasma glucose (mmol/L) 5.05 ± 0.54 5.11 ± 0.66 4.83 ± 0.93 p = 0.306
Retinal parameters
  Short time Hypertensive patient Long time Hypertensive patients Healthy control subjects p-value healthy vs hypertensive p-value healthy vs long time hypertensive
ICD (μm) 22.2 ± 5.2 24.2 ± 6.3 20.1 ± 4.2 p = 0.001 p < 0.001
CapA (−) 1643 ± 602 1462 ± 690 1821 ± 651 p = 0.013 p = 0.005
RCF (AU) 299 ± 72 282 ± 70 314 ± 60 p = 0.032 p = 0.010
OD (μm) 102 ± 12 102 ± 15 107 ± 11 p = 0.038 p = 0.052
ID (μm) 76.1 ± 7.1 75.5 ± 8.5 79.6 ± 8.0 p = 0.004 p = 0.010
WT (μm) 13.2 ± 3.7 13.2 ± 4.4 13.6 ± 3.8 p = 0.552 p = 0.614
WLR (−) 0.345 ± 0.08 0.346 ± 0.10 0.352 ± 0.11 p = 0.693 p = 0.769
CA (μm [2]) 3773 ± 1408 3806 ± 1698 3963 ± 1489 p = 0.540 p = 0.646
  1. Data are given as mean ± SD, duration of disease, BMI is given as median and interquartile range, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, HR heart rate, LDL low density lipids, HDL high density lipids, RCF retinal capillary flow, ICD intercapillary distance, CapA capillary area, OD outer diameter retinal arteriole, ID inner diameter retinal arteriole, WT wall thickness retinal arteriole, WLR wall to lumen ratio, CA cross sectional area
  2. The data for the healthy control subjects have been previously described by our study group [21]
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