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Table 6 Predictors of limited exercise in HF patients

From: Quality of life questionnaire predicts poor exercise capacity only in HFpEF and not in HFrEF

Variable Univariate predictors Multivariate predictors
  OR CI 95% P value OR CI 95% P value
Whole HF study patients
 MLHFQ - total score 1.053 (1.025–1.081) <0.001 1.080 (1.023–1.140) 0.005
 MLHFQ - physical score 1.085 (1.031–1.141) 0.002    
 MLHFQ - emotional score 1.163 (1.060–1.277) 0.001    
 Age 1.069 (1.021–1.120) 0.005 1.101 (1.007–1.203) 0.035
 Gender 0.576 (0.269–1.232) 0.155    
 Diabetes mellitus 2.765 (1.199–6.379) 0.017 4.876 (1.037–22.94) 0.045
 LA diameter 2.500 (1.467–4.260) 0.001    
 FT 0.996 (0.993–1.000) 0.046    
 IVRT 0.984 (0.969–1.000) 0.047    
 PAAT 0.972 (0.952–0.993) 0.008    
 Septal MAPSE 0.235 (0.059–0.939) 0.040    
 E/e’ 1.090 (1.009–1.177) 0.029    
 Septal a’ 0.787 (0.632–0.981) 0.033    
 Septal s’ 0.663 (0.447–0.983) 0.041    
HFpEF patients
 MLHFQ - total score 1.080 (1.032–1.131) <0.001 1.137 (1.036–1.249) 0.007
 MLHFQ - physical score 1.088 (1.010–1.173) 0.026    
 MLHFQ - emotional score 1.213 (1.055–1.396) 0.007    
 Diabetes mellitus 3.556 (1.089–11.61) 0.036 26.88 (1.791–400.8) 0.017
 Hemoglobin 0.711 (0.514–0.983) 0.039    
 NYHA class 3.038 (1.271–7.262) 0.012    
 BSA 0.003 (0.000–0.241) 0.009    
 LVMI 10.50 (1.007–1.096) 0.023    
 Lateral a’ 0.768 (0.604–0.978) 0.032    
 Lateral s’ 0.468 (0.258–0.850) 0.013    
HFrEF patients
 MLHFQ - physical score 1.076 (1.002–1.156) 0.044    
 Age 1.071 (1.013–1.132) 0.015 1.113 (1.024–1.209) 0.012
 NYHA class 2.501 (1.064–5.881) 0.036    
 LVM 1.010 (1.001–1.019) 0.036 1.015 (1.000–1.030) 0.047
 LA diameter 3.183 (1.356–7.475) 0.008 7.401 (1.821–30.08) 0.005
 LV EDD 1.070 (1.002–1.143) 0.044    
  1. MLHFQ Minnesota living with heart failure questionnaire, NYHA New York Heart Association, BSA body surface area, LV left ventricle, LVM left ventricular mass, LA left atrium, EDD end-diastolic dimension, FT filling time, IVRT isovolemic relaxation time, MAPSE mitral annular plane systolic excursion, E early diastolic filling, velocity, e’ early diastolic myocardial velocity, s’ systolic myocardial velocity, PAAT pulmonary artery acceleration time, LVMI left ventricular mass index, HFrEF heart failure with reduced ejection fraction