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Table 3 The comparison of PHQ-9 scores in the two groups before and after intervention

From: Effectiveness of a PRECEDE-based education intervention on quality of life in elderly patients with chronic heart failure

Items Before intervention After intervention
Intervention group Control group t p Intervention group Control group t p
Little interest or pleasure in doing things 0.55 ± 1.01 0.94 ± 1.03 1.436 0.156 0.19 ± 0.65 0.87 ± 0.99 3.176 0.002
Feeling down, depressed or hopeless 1.03 ± 1.08 1.06 ± 0.81 0.133 0.895 0.42 ± 0.62 1.03 ± 0.91 3.093 0.003
Trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, or sleeping too much 1.32 ± 1.28 0.77 ± 0.96 1.916 0.060 0.65 ± 1.17 1.00 ± 0.93 1.321 0.191
Feeling tired or having little energy 1.61 ± 0.99 2.03 ± 0.95 1.704 0.094 1.00 ± 1.12 1.42 ± 0.92 1.604 0.114
Poor appetite or overeating 1.55 ± 1.09 1.06 ± 0.53 1.698 0.095 0.39 ± 0.72 1.13 ± 1.09 3.173 0.002
Feeling bad about yourself-or that you’re a failure of have let yourself or your family down 0.23 ± 0.67 0.48 ± 0.85 1.327 0.189 0.06 ± 0.25 0.45 ± 0.72 2.818 0.007
Trouble concentrating on things, such as reading the newspaper and watching TV 0.52 ± 1.09 0.19 ± 0.48 1.508 0.137 0.00 ± 0.00 0.48 ± 0.77 3.503 0.001
Moving or speaking so slowly that other people could have noticed. Or, the opposite-being so fidgety or restless that you have been moving around a lot more than usual 0.32 ± 0.75 0.16 ± 0.45 1.026 0.309 0.00 ± 0.00 0.13 ± 0.43 1.680 0.058
Thoughts that you would be better off dead or of hurting yourself in some way 0.10 ± 0.54 0.11 ± 0.55 0.231 0.818 0.00 ± 0.00 0.42 ± 0.56 4.139 0.000
Mean total score 7.23 ± 5.47 7.03 ± 4.68 0.323 0.747 2.71 ± 2.72 6.94 ± 4.70 4.334 0.000