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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study sample

From: Ideal cardiovascular health and the subclinical impairments of cardiovascular diseases: a cross-sectional study in central south China

Characteristics Overall
(n = 3009)
Female
(n = 1007)
Male
(n = 2002)
P Value
Age, y 48.6 ± 9.7 49.9 ± 9.9 48.0 ± 9.6 <0.001
Education, n (%)
 Elementary school 206 (6.9) 135(13.4) 71 (3.6) <0.001
 High school 1353 (45.0) 538 (53.4) 815 (40.7)  
 College or above 1450 (48.2) 334 (33.2) 1116 (55.7)  
Body mass index, kg/m2 24.9 ± 3.3 23.5 ± 3.1 25.5 ± 3.2 <0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 128.3 ± 16.6 125.5 ± 18.5 129.7 ± 15.3 <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 81.3 ± 11.3 76.3 ± 11.0 83.6 ± 10.8 <0.001
Hypertension, n (%) 409 (13.6) 125 (12.4) 284 (14.2) 0.195
Antihypertensive medication, n (%) 373 (12.4) 109 (10.8) 264 (13.2) 0.069
Fasting glucose, mmol/L 5.4 ± 1.4 5.2 ± 1.0 5.5 ± 1.6 <0.001
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 134 (4.5) 22 (2.2) 112 (5.6) <0.001
Diabetes medication, n (%) 111 (3.7) 21 (2.1) 90 (4.5) <0.001
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 5.2 ± 1.0 5.2 ± 1.0 5.2 ± 1.0 0.199
HDL-cholesterol, mmol/L 1.4 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.3 <0.001
LDL-cholesterol, mmol/L 2.9 ± 0.9 2.9 ± 0.9 2.9 ± 0.9 0.95
Lipid-lowering medication, n (%) 47 (1.6) 10 (1.0) 37 (1.8) 0.086
Cardiovascular health metrics
Ideal diet, n (%) 102 (3.4) 51 (5.1) 51 (2.5) 0.001
Ideal smoking status, n (%) 1944 (64.6) 978 (97.1) 966 (48.3) <0.001
Ideal physical activity, n (%) 339 (11.3) 112 (11.1) 227 (11.3) 0.859
Ideal BMI, n (%) 1591 (52.9) 726 (72.1) 865 (43.2) <0.001
Ideal Blood pressure, n (%) 797 (26.5) 391 (38.8) 406 (20.3) <0.001
Ideal Total cholesterol, n (%) 1472 (48.9) 517 (51.3) 955 (47.7) 0.060
Ideal Fasting glucose, n (%) 2258 (75.0) 826 (82.0) 1432 (71.5) <0.001
Ideal CVH score 2.8 ± 1.3 3.6 ± 1.2 2.5 ± 1.2 <0.001
Subclinical biomarkers, median (Q1, Q3)
Homocysteine, μmol/L 9.4 (7.6, 11.6) 7.8 (6.3, 9.3) 10.4(8.6, 12.5) <0.001
C-reactive protein, mg/L 1.5 (0.8, 2.6) 1.3 (0.7, 2.4) 1.6 (0.8, 2.7) <0.001
Microalbuminuria, mg/L 9.5 (5.3, 16.8) 7.0 (4.0, 13.0) 11.0 (6.0, 18.0) 0.005
Subclinical disease markers
1. Increased CIMT, n (%) 422 (14.0) 118 (11.7) 30 (15.2) 0.010
2. Presence of carotid plaque, n (%) 805 (26.8) 250 (24.8) 555 (27.7) 0.097
3. LV hypertrophy by ECG/Echocardiography
 LV hypertrophy by ECG (Sokolow-Lyon criteria), n (%) 132 (4.4) 18(1.8) 114(5.7) <0.001
 LV mass-to-BSA ratio, g/m2 92.4 ± 18.2 77.8 ± 14.2 99.7 ± 15.3 <0.001
 LV hypertrophy by Echocardiography, n (%) 341 (11.3) 84 (8.3) 257 (12.8) <0.001
LV hypertrophy by ECG or Echocardiography,
n (%)
453 (15.1) 100 (1.0) 353(17.6) <0.001
4. LV systolic dysfunction by echocardiography
 Fractional shortening 0.37 ± 0.04 0.38 ± 0.04 0.37 ± 0.04 <0.001
 LV systolic dysfunction, n (%) 63 (2.1) 11 (1.1) 52 (2.6) <0.001
5. Peripheral arterial disease by ABI
 ABI ≤ 0.9, n (%) 35 (1.2) 19 (1.9) 16 (0.8) 0.011
Composite of subclinical disease markers
 At least 1, n (%) 1339 (44.5) 377 (37.4) 962 (48.1) <0.001
 At least 2, n (%) 383 (12.7) 105 (10.4) 278 (13.9)  
  ≥ 3, n (%) 56 (1.9) 16 (1.6) 40 (2.0)  
 Mean score 0.59 ± 0.76 0.49 ± 0.72 0.64 ± 0.77 <0.001
  1. Q1, quartile 1; Q3, quartile 3; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; CVH, cardiovascular health; CIMT, carotid intima-media thickness; LV, left ventricular; BSA, body surface area; ECG, electrocardiogram; ABI, ankle-brachial index