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Table 3 Odds ratios for persistent smoking after the coronary index event calculated with logistic regression analysis

From: Medical and sociodemographic factors predict persistent smoking after coronary events

Study factors Model 1 (OR, 95% CI) p-value Model 2 (OR, 95% CI) p-value
Crudea Multi-adjustedb
Sociodemographic factors
 Mean age at index event (OR per year) 1.02 (1.00–1.04) p = 0.05 0.97 (0.90–1.03) p = 0.27
 Time since the index event (OR per year) 1.02 (1.00–1.04) p = 0.05 1.01 (0.98–1.05) p = 0.41
 Female gender 1.09 (0.68–1.75) p = 0.71 2.17 (0.85–5.52) p = 0.10
 Living alone 1.69 (1.01–2.82) p < 0.05 1.23 (0.48–3.11) p = 0.67
 Low education 2.20 (1.36–3.57) p = 0.001 3.35 (1.43–7.81) p < 0.01
 Unemployed or on disability benefits 3.01 (1.81–5.02) p < 0.001 4.12 (1.80–9.41) p = 0.001
Medical factors
 Not having ST-elevation infarction as index event 1.53 (1.02–2.29) p < 0.05 2.30 (1.08–4.40) p < 0.05
 More than 1 coronary event 2.30 (1.42–3.72) p = 0.001 1.53 (0.63–3.72) p = 0.35
 Participation in cardiac rehabilitation 0.62 (0.41–0.92) p < 0.05 0.78 (0.38–1.60) p = 0.50
 Charlson co-morbidity sum score 1.12 (0.96–1.32 p = 0.14   
 Duration of smoking (years) 2.93 (1.62–2.71) p < 0.001 2.34 (1.41–3.88) p = 0.001
Psychosocial factors
 Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score - total > 11 1.06 (0.70–1.62) p = 0.78   
 Type D personality 1.03 (0.65–1.65) p = 0.89   
 Worry score (PSWQc) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) p = 0.87   
 Insomniad 1.10 (0.73–1.65) p = 0.65   
Perceived risk (1–10 Likert scale)
 What do you feel is the likelihood of having a new heart attack over the next 12 months? 1.15 (1.05–1.25) p < 0.01 1.01 (0.86–1.18) p = 0.93
 How much do you feel you can help reduce your risk of having another heart attack? 0.91 (0.84–0.99) p < 0.05 0.88 (0.76–1.02) p = 0.09
 How much do you think you will have to restrict your activities in the long-term du to your heart condition? 1.17 (1.08–1.27) p < 0.001 1.00 (0.87–1.17) p = 0.90
Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (1–10 Likert scale)
 How much does your illness affect your life? (consequences) 0.99 (0.92–1.06) p = 0.76   
 How long do you think your illness will continue? (timeline) 0.98 (0.91–1.04) p = 0.45   
 How much control do you feel you have over your illness? (personal control) 0.95 (0.88–1.02) p = 0.16   
 How much do you think your treatment can help you? (treatment control) 0.80 (0.72–0.88) p < 0.001 0.88 (0.75–1.02) p = 0.09
 How much do you experience symptoms from your illness? (identity) 0.83 (0.92–1.07) p = 0.83   
 How concerned are you about your illness? (concern) 0.98 (0.93–1.06) p = 0.74   
 How well do you feel you understand your illness? (understanding) 0.97 (0.89–1.05) p = 0.41   
 How much does your illness affect you emotionally? (emotional response) 0.96 (0.90–1.02) p = 0.19   
  1. Quitted smoking after the index event is the reference category
  2. aModel 1, crude analyses
  3. bModel 2, multi-adjusted with including all variables with p < 0.1 in crude analysis (adjusted for all variables included in the model)
  4. cWorry was assessed by the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), a 16 item measure of pathological worry
  5. dMeasured by Bergen insomnia Scale