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Table 3 Pedictors of pre-hypertension compared to normal blood pressure

From: Prehypertension and psychosocial risk factors among university students in ASEAN countries

Sociodemographics UOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)a
Age in years
  18–19 1 (Reference) ---
  20–21 1.01 (0.85–1.21)  
  22–30 1.05 (0.87–1.27)  
 Gender
  Female 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  Male 2.70 (2.32–3.14)*** 2.56 (2.17–3.02)***
 Economic family background
  Wealthy 1 (Reference) ---
  Poor 0.92 (0.79–1.09)  
 Country income
  Upper middle income 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  Lower middle income 0.52 (0.45–0.60)*** 0.52 (0.42–0.64)***
 Living arrangement
  Lives with parents/guardians 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  Lives away from parents/guardians 1.38 (1.16–1.64)*** 1.39 (1.03–1.89)*
Nutrition variables
 Body Mass Index (BMI)
  Normal 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  Underweight 0.64 (0.51–0.79)*** 0.67 (0.52–0.87)**
  Overweight 1.25 (0.98–1.60) 1.11 (0.86–1.43)
  Obese 2.28 (1.84–2.82)*** 1.94 (1.55–2.43)***
Usually eat salt 0.77 (0.65–0.91)** 0.97 (0.82–1.16)
Avoid foods containing fat and cholesterol 1.00 (0.86–1.17) ---
Insufficient fruits and vegetables 0.88 (0.73–1.07) ---
Soft drinks (once or more a week)1 1.34 (1.11–1.61)** 1.56 (1.27–1.92)***
Fast food (once or more a week)1 0.95 (0.79–1.13) ---
Red meat at least once a day 1.00 (0.86–1.16) ---
 Chocolate or candy1
  Never or rarely 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  1–6 times a week 0.73 (0.60–0.88)** 0.74 (0.60–0.90)**
  Once or more times a day 0.70 (0.53–0.91)** 0.82 (0.62–1.09)
Health behaviour
 Physical activity
  Low 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  Moderate 1.05 (0.88–1.24) 0.89 (0.74–1.07)
  High 1.36 (1.08–1.71)** 1.25 (0.98–1.59)
Current tobacco use 1.65 (1.16–1.64)** 1.03 (0.70–1.51)
Heavy drinking at least monthly 1.96 (1.32–2.54)*** 1.91 (1.43–2.54)***
 Sleep duration
  7–8 h 1 (Reference) ---
  6 or less hours 0.86 (0.74–1.01)  
  9 or more hours 0.91 (0.69–1.20)  
Psychosocial stress and support
 Depression (severe) 1.51 (1.20–1.90)*** 1.32 (1.00–1.76)*
 Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 1.14 (0.96–1.35) ---
 Life satisfaction
  Low 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  Medium 1.01 (0.79–1.28) 1.01 (0.78–1.31)
  High 0.71 (0.60–0.84)*** 0.97 (0.78–1.21)
 Social support
  Low 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  High 0.80 (0.69–0.93)** 0.90 (0.77–1.05)
  1. aHosmer & Lemeshow Chi-square = 15.14, P = 0.057; Nagelkerke R2: 0.12; ***P < .001; **P < .01; *P < .05
  2. UOR Unadjusted Odds Ratio; AOR Adjusted Odds Ratio; CI Confidence Interval; 1not assessed in Laos and Philippines